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Türing (family of artists)

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The Türing (also Düring, Thüring, Turing) were a stonemason and builder family of the 15th and 16th centuries, originating from Memmingen in Swabia. Duke Sigmund of Tyrol, the Rich in Coins (* 1427; † 1496) brought Niklas Türing the Elder, the founder of the artistic family, from the Allgäu to the royal seat of Innsbruck around 1480.[1]

The next patron was Maximilian (* 1459; † 1519). His father Emperor Frederick III. (* 1415; † 1493) put Sigmund of Tyrol under such pressure that he renounced the regency of Upper Austria (Habsburg) in favor of Maximilian in 1490. Upper Austria, which is not to be confused with the present-day province, then comprised Tyrol, the Austrian foothills, and the remaining ancestral lands on Swiss territory. Maximilian became Roman-German king in 1486 and Roman-German emperor in 1508. He appointed Niklas Türing the Elder as court architect and commissioned, among other things, the Golden Roof, 1497-1500.

Between 1515 and 1520, the Türing workshop developed its own style in the fields of architecture and architectural sculpture, which marks the transition from the Gothic (Middle Ages) to the Renaissance (modern times) in numerous Innsbruck court buildings. Examples of this are: the Court Church, 1549 as well as patrician houses such as Trautsonhaus, 1541; Prechthaus, 1541; Helblinghaus, 1560.[2]

Artistically important family members and works

  • Niklas Türing the Elder († 1517 in Innsbruck); active in Innsbruck as of 1480
    • Gregor Türing (* c. 1475; † 1543); from 1503 active as a master in Innsbruck, initially still in the workshop of his father Niklas Türing the Elder, with whom he worked, among other things, on the Golden Roof, then later independently.[3]
      • Niklas Türing the Younger († 1558 in Innsbruck); appeared as a master builder from the 1540s and was admitted as a burgher’s son in 1548[3]

Niklas Türing the Elder was a stonemason, sculptor and master builder of the late Gothic period. His works can be found in Swabia and especially in Innsbruck and other parts of Tyrol.
In Innsbruck he erected the Golden Roof with the reliefs together with his son Gregor. He created the figure of the castle giant Haidl, currently displayed in the Old Town Hall next to the city tower, for the Burgriesenhaus in the Hofgasse.
In various parts of Tyrol, coats of arms originate from Nikolaus Türing the Elder, such as at Tratzberg Castle and at the Münzertor in Hall.[4]

Gregor Türing is a stonemason, sculptor and master builder of the Gothic-Renaissance style transition. With many houses, he shaped the image of Innsbruck’s old town that still exists today in the period from around 1510 to 1540 in the Gothic-Renaissance style transition. Most of the houses in the old town are Gothic in style, although the portals, window frames and ornaments show the stylistic characteristics of the Renaissance.

Among his works to be mentioned are the portals at the Trautsonhaus and Burgriesenhaus, the bay ornaments at the Trautsonhaus and other details. The lower row of coats of arms at the Golden Roof (Styria, Austria, Hungary, imperial eagle, royal eagle, Burgundy, Milan and Tyrol) was also created by Gregor Türing.[4]

Niklas Türing the Younger was a master stonemason and mason began building the Court Church under the supervision of the Trent architect Andrea Crivelli. However, he died unexpectedly in 1558.[4]

Literature

  • Heinrich Hammer: The Church of St. John in Matrei am Brenner and its Masters. In: Veröffentlichungen des Museum Ferdinandeum in Innsbruck Heft 8, 1928, pp. 73-90 (with details on the Türing family of master builders, digital copy).
  • Josef Ringler: Türing (Düring, Thüring, Turing), Innsbruck family of stonemasons. In: Hans Vollmer (ed.): Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Founded by Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker. Volume 33: Theodotos vacation . E. A. Seemann, Leipzig 1939, pp. 473-474
  • Türing. In: Rudolf Vierhaus (ed.): Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie (DBE). 2., revised and expanded edition. Volume 10: Thies-Zymalkowski . De Gruyter / K. G. Saur, Berlin / Boston / Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-096381-6, p. 136 (books.google.de – entries on Gregory, Niklas the Elder and Niklas the Younger).

Web links

Individual references

  1. Türing. In: Rudolf Vierhaus (ed.): Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie (DBE). 2., revised and expanded edition. Volume 10: Thies-Zymalkowski . De Gruyter / K. G. Saur, Berlin / Boston / Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-096381-6, p. 136 (books.google.de).
  2. Erich Egg Türing, artist family. Austria-Forum, the knowledge network.
  3. a b Christian Nikolaus Opitz: Schöpferhaus, Innsbruck (Tyrol) In: Architekturblog Baudenkmäler in Österreich, published on 3 March 2017 (with small correction to information in the German Encyclopedia).
  4. a b c Anton Prock The Türing family of master builders. 2010.