Weir at the former Schnockes mill
|Location and history|
|Built||1246 first mention|
|Decommissioned||Destruction during the Second World War|
The Schnockesmühle in the town of Viersen was a water mill with an undershot water wheel.
Mills in Viersen
In the municipality of Viersen there were a total of 18 mills in the earlier centuries. Of these, four were horse oil mills as hammer mills. These were operated by horse power. There were also two windmills, the Hoser and Hüsterfeld windmills, both of which were privately owned.
The situation was different with the water mills. The monastery of St. Gereon in Cologne owned the manor of Viersen and thus the water rights over the streams in Viersen. The construction of water mills required its approval. The monastery granted mill rights as hereditary fief and received an annual feudal rent from it. This had to be delivered to the parish of St. Remigius. These documents show that there were already twelve water mills in Viersen in 1246. All mills, with the exception of the monastery mill, paid one Sümmer (about one hundredweight) of malt annually as feudal interest. There was no compulsory milling in the dominion of Viersen. All farmers could grind wherever they wanted.
These twelve mills were located on:
- “Dorfer Bach”: Kaisermühle, Kimmelmühle, Goetersmühle, Biestenmühle and Schricksmühle
- “Hammer Bach”: Plinzenmühle, Schnockesmühle, Sgoedenmühle, Bongartzmühle, Hüstermühle and Hammer Mühle
- “Rintger Bach”: monastery mill
The Schnockesmühle was located at the Hammer Bach, at the Weiherstraße in the district Oberbeberich in the city of Viersen in the district Viersen. In front of the mill was a pond. The water level of the Hammer Bach in this area was 48 m above sea level. Below the Schnockesmühle was the Sgoedenmühle, above was the Plinzenmühle.
The Hammer Bach supplied six mills with water for centuries. The care and maintenance of the watercourse is the responsibility of the Water and Soil Association of the Middle Niers, which has its headquarters in Grefrath.
Actually it was called “Mühle in Verendich – Mühle am Wehrdeich”. It belonged to the lords of Tüschenbroich. For the knight Gerit v. Tüschenbroich and his family the priest of St. Remigius had to pray every Friday and to read a mass. In return he received seven malters of rye annually from the mill. This rye delivery was only cancelled after the secularisation. The Schnockesmühle stood where the gymnasium is today. It was a flour mill with a grinder and an overshot water wheel. In 1809, the daily grinding capacity of the mill was three malt of grain (one malt = three hundredweight). The residential building of the mill was destroyed by bombs during the Second World War. This also meant the end of the mill. The existing mill pond remained in its size. The place where the outflowing water of the mill pond drove the mill wheel, stands today the weir.
Former mill pond
The Hammer Bach in the area of the Schnockesmühle
Tranchot map from 1806
- Hans Vogt: Niederrheinischer Wassermühlenführer. Verein Niederrhein, Krefeld 1998, ISBN 3-00-002906-0, pp. 511-523.
- Ferdinand Dohr: Vom Wasserwesen im Alten Viersen. In: Heimatbuch des Kreises Kempen-Krefeld, 25. Folge/1974, S. 47-55.
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