The Sanjō (Jap. 三条家, Sanjō-ke, Kyūjitai: 三條家) were a family of Japanese court nobility (Kuge), derived from Fujiwara no Kinzane (藤原公実; 1053-1106).[A 1]
To distinguish them from the Ōgimachi-Sanjō, they are also called Tempōrin-Sanjō(転法輪三条家).
- Saneyuki(実行; 1080-1162), son of Kinzane and a daughter of Fujiwara no Motosada, was the first to take the name Sanjō: this was the area in Kyoto (Heian-kyō) where his Takakura residence(三条高倉殿) was located. He held the offices of udaijin (chancellor on the right) and 1150 Daijō Daijin (grand chancellor) in the imperial government.
- Kiminori(公教; 1103-1160), son of Saneyuki and a daughter of Fujiwara no Akisue, became naidaijin (minister of the interior) in 1157. He was also head of the authority for the administration of the fiefs (Shōen), the Kiroku-jo.
- Sanefusa(実房; 1147-1225), Kiminori’s son, became Chūnagon (Middle Cabinet Councillor) and Director of the Empress’s Palace (Kōgōgū) in 1166, Dainagon (Chief Cabinet Councillor) in 1183, Udaijin in 1189, and finally Sadaijin (Chancellor to the Left) in 1190, until he retired due to illness in 1196 and became a monk.
- Kinfusa(公房; 1179-1249), eldest son of Sanefusa, became Daijō Daijin in 1218, but was forced to resign from this post after the Jōkyū rebellion in 1221.
- Kin’uji(公氏; 1182-1237) another son of Sanefusa was Gon-Dainagon and founded a lineage that called itself Ōgimachi-(正親町)-Sanjō[A 2] called.
- Sanefuyu(実冬; 1354-1411), descendant of Kinfusa, became Daijō Daijin in 1402.
- Saneka(実香; 1469-1558), Sanefuyu’s great-great-grandson, became Daijō Daijin in 1535.
- Kin’yori(公頼; 1495-1551), Saneka’s son, was a sadaijin. He retreated to the castle of Ōuchi Yoshitaka (1507-1551) in Yamaguchi to avoid becoming involved in the disputes in Kyoto. He died when Sue Harukata (1521-1555) captured the castle.
- Sanjō no kata, a daughter, became a concubine of Takeda Shingen in the Sengoku period, and promoter of culture in Kōfu.
- Sanetomi(実美; 1837-1891) was one of the leading members of the court nobility who participated in the Meiji Restoration. He came under suspicion by the shogunate in 1863, thus losing his position as an advisor to the court. He then retreated to Nagato Province under the protection of the Mōri. In 1867 he was able to return to the court and regained all his titles. In 1868 he became Gijō[A 3], Udaijin, in 1874 Daijō Daijin, in 1885 Naidaijin (lord seal keeper). In the same year he was appointed duke.
- The third son of Sanetomi founded a branch with the title Baron.
- Emperor Sanjō (978-1017) did not belong to this family.
- After 1868 Count.
- Gijō(議定) was the second highest government post between the Sōsai (First Minister, Chairman) and San’yo (Sanshoku system) at the beginning of the Meiji period and was equivalent to a cabinet minister.
- Edmond Papinot: Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan. Reprint of the 1910 edition. Tuttle, 1972, ISBN 0-8048-0996-8.
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