Roseldorf (Community of Sitzendorf)
|Pol. district, state||Hollabrunn (HL), Lower Austria|
|Pol. municipality||Sitzendorf on the Schmida|
|Inhabitants of the village||291 (1 Jan 2020)|
|Building status||157 (2001f1)|
|Area of KG||10,84 km²|
|Land register number||09046|
|Counting area/district||Roseldorf (31043 008)|
|Source: STAT: gazetteer; BEV: GEONAM; NÖGIS|
Princely seat Celtic city Sandberg
Northeast of the village of Roseldorf on the Sandberg was the largest known Celtic central settlement in Austria.
Historical research at the end of the 20th century revealed that the area was home to a very significant archaeological site. More detailed investigations by means of geomagnetic prospection have revealed that the largest known fortified city-like Celtic settlement (oppidum) was located here on an area of at least 25 hectares – possibly as much as 50 hectares – around the 2nd century BC. BC, the largest known fortified city-like Celtic settlement (oppidum) was located here.
The area was never built over by later settlements and there are no vineyards here either, only fields, so that since the site became known, the area has been available to archaeologists for their work every year after the harvest. When the time of sowing comes, the ground is used for agriculture again.
The existence of a settlement from the Latène period was brought to attention by a belt hook found in 1932 and other numerous surface finds. Thus, more than 1500 coins made of gold and silver have been found so far, making the Celtic town on the Sandberg the Celtic settlement with the most coins and the oldest minting site in Austria. These coins were minted in Roseldorf itself, but there are also numerous “foreign coins” which indicate extensive and far-reaching trade relations with the Rhineland, Bavaria, the Prague area and the Pannonian-Hungarian region. Remarkable is also the fact that at that time people were already intensively engaged in the forgery of coins. There are also coins that have a bronze core and are only covered with a thin layer of gold.
Archaeologists were able to record a high point in 2009, when the fifth sanctuary was found here. This find represents a true sensation in the whole of Europe, which also underlines the importance of this Celtic city.
In August of 2013, a 2,300-year-old skeleton was found near the end of the annual excavation period,
which is completely preserved. Earlier there were only single bone finds.
The excavations are carried out under the auspices of the Prehistoric Department of the Natural History Museum in Vienna under the project name “Fürstensitz-Keltenstadt Sandberg”. During the annual excavation period, there is an “open day” for viewing the finds unearthed and for discussion with the archaeologists.
Those who come to the Sandberg outside the excavation period can inform themselves about the extent, the significance and the archaeological findings by means of the existing display boards and boundary markers.
The replica of a Celtic sanctuary from Roseldorf can be seen in the prehistoric museum MAMUZ in the area of Asparn Castle.
Retention basin Roseldorf
The market town of Sitzendorf built a retention basin with a storage volume of about 250,000 cubic metres in the cadastral municipality of Roseldorf to protect against floods from the Schmida, which was completed in 2004.
This project not only prevents flooding in the local areas of Roseldorf, Goggendorf, Sitzendorf and Frauendorf during events up to a 5,000-year flood, but the flood protection also affects the downstream communities up to the mouth of the Danube.
The special design of the retention basin, which covers an area of around 12 hectares, also improves the low-water balance of the Schmida, which is particularly important for the local flora and fauna. It is designed in such a way that the Schmida meanders through the basin in a natural course and already fills the many small ponds during somewhat heavier rainfall. This biotope is not only a habitat for birds, frogs and game, but also a recreational area in the Schmida valley, as the cycle path passes by and an educational fruit trail has been created.
Parish church Roseldorf
From the parish church Roseldorf Mariae Geburt some baroque parts are still preserved, the rest had to be rebuilt in 1964-1966.
- Veronika Holzer: Der keltische Kultbezirk in Roseldorf / Sandberg (Niederösterreich). In: E. Lauermann and P. Trebsche (eds.): Heiligtümer der Druiden. Sacrifices and Rituals among the Celts. Catalogue of the Lower Austrian Provincial Museum NF 474 (Heidenreichstein 2008), pp. 32-49.
- Ernst Lauermann: Das Modell des Heiligtums von Roseldorf im Museum für Urgeschichte des Landes Niederösterreich in Asparn/Zaya. In: E. Lauermann and P. Trebsche (eds.): Heiligtümer der Druiden. Sacrifices and Rituals among the Celts. Catalogue of the Lower Austrian Provincial Museum NF 474 (Heidenreichstein 2008), pp. 50-63.
- Johann Werfring: Roseldorfer Kultort als Denkmodell in Asparn Article in the “Wiener Zeitung” of 10 April 2014, supplement “ProgrammPunkte”, p. 7.
- Natural History Museum Vienna
- Veronika Holzer: The Celtic Centre Roseldorf/Sandberg – a new settlement type?, on the website of the Natural History Museum Vienna
- Entry to Roseldorf (Community of Sitzendorf) in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of Lower Austria (Museum of Lower Austria)
- Market community Sitzendorf an der Schmida
- Statistics Austria: Population on 1.1.2020 by localities (territorial status 1.1.2020),(CSV)
- “The Schmida – a region presents itself” by Friedrich Damköhler and Josef Stefan, 1st edition, ISBN 978-3-200-02028-3, p. 58/59
- Report in the ZIB2 of the ORF on 27 August 2013