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Purple fumitory

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Purple fumitory
Dunkler Erdrauch (Fumaria schleicheri)

Dark fumitory(Fumaria schleicheri)

System
Eudicotyledons
Order: Ranunculales (Buttercups)
Family: Poppy family (Papaveraceae)
Subfamily: Fumitory family (Fumarioideae)
Genre: Fumaria
Art: Purple fumitory
Scientific name
Fumaria schleicheri
Soy.-Will.

Dark fumitory(Fumaria schleicheri), also called Schleicher’s f umitory, is a species of plant in the fumitory subfamily (Fumarioideae) within the poppy family (Papaveraceae). It is distributed from Central Asia to Central and Southern Europe.

Description

The dark fumitory grows as an annual herbaceous plant and reaches heights of 15 to 30 centimetres. The light green, slightly pruinose leaves are double-pinnate. The linear or ovate-oblong leaf tips are three to five times as long as they are wide.

The inflorescence is eight to twenty-flowered. The bracts, about 1 millimeter long, are about 1/3 as long as the 3 to 4 mm long, upright projecting fruiting pedicels. The zygomorphic flowers are about 5 to 6 millimeters long and dark pink with a distinct dark purple tip. The sepals are roundish-ovate with a length of up to 1 millimeter. The globose fruit is 1.5 to 2 millimeters in diameter and about half as long as the pedicel. The fruit is provided with a short, permanent spike.

The dark fumitory flowers mainly from June to September.

The chromosome number is 2n = 32.[1]

Occurrence and endangerment

Habitus, leaves and inflorescences with flowers and young fruits

Fumaria schleicheri is an East European-West Asian floral element. Its distribution ranges from Central Asia in the east to Central and Southern Europe. It is rarely found in Central Europe. In Germany, the dark fumitory is rare and mainly found in the central region. It is considered endangered according to the Red List.[2] In Austria and Switzerland, the dark fumitory is rare and endangered.

Dark fumitory grows in arable weed communities, along vineyard walls, along paths and in barrens. It prefers warm, dry and mostly calcareous loam and stone soils. In Central Europe, it grows in communities of the Alliarion and Fumario-Euphorbion associations.[3]

System

The first publication of Fumaria schleicheri was by the French librarian and botanist Hubert Félix Soyer-Willemet (1791-1867). The species epithet schleicheri honours the Swiss plant collector Johann Christoph Schleicher (1768-1834).

In Europe, two subspecies can be distinguished:

  • Fumaria schleicheri subsp. schleicheri
  • Fumaria schleicheri subsp. microcarpa

    (Hausskn.) Lidén: Occurs in southern Russia and Turkey. The chromosome number is 2n = 32.[4]

The dark fumitory(Fumaria schleicheri) is closely related to the common fumitory(Fumaria officinalis), which is usually found in Central Europe.

Literature

  • Henning Haeupler, Thomas Muer: Bildatlas der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. Ed.: Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (= DieFarn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. Band 2). Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3364-4.
  • Konrad von Weihe (ed.): Illustrierte Flora. Germany and adjacent areas. Vascular cryptogams and flowering plants. Founded by August Garcke. 23. Edition. Paul Parey, Berlin/Hamburg 1972, ISBN 3-489-68034-0.
  • Oskar Sebald, Siegmund Seybold, Georg Philippi (eds.): Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Baden-Württembergs. Volume 3: Special part (Spermatophyta, subclass Rosidae): Droseraceae to Fabaceae. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1992, ISBN 3-8001-3314-8.
  • Wolfgang Adler, Karl Oswald, Raimund Fischer: Exkursionsflora von Österreich. Ed.: Manfred A. Fischer. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart/Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-8001-3461-6.
  • Christian Heitz: Schul- und Exkursionsflora für die Schweiz. With consideration of the border areas. Identification book for the wild vascular plants. Founded by August Binz. 18. completely revised and enlarged edition. Schwabe & Co., Basel 1986, ISBN 3-7965-0832-4.
  • Erich Oberdorfer: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. With the collaboration of Theo Müller. 6., revised and supplemented edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1990, ISBN 3-8001-3454-3.

Individual references

  1. Fumaria schleicheri at Tropicos.org. In: IPCN Chromosome Reports. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  2. Dark fumitory. FloraWeb.com
  3. Erich Oberdorfer: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora für Deutschland und angrenzende Gebiete. With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8., strongly revised and supplemented edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5, p. 430
  4. Jaakko Jalas, Juha Suominen: Atlas florae europaeae. Volume 9 (Paeoniaceae to Capparaceae). Page 99, Helsinki 1991. ISBN 951-9108-08-4

Web links

Commons: Dark fumitory(Fumaria schleicheri)– Album with pictures, videos and audio files