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Pondweed

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Pondweed
Krauses Laichkraut (Potamogeton crispus)

Curly Pondweed(Potamogeton crispus)

System
Subdivision: Seed plants (Spermatophytina)
Class: Angiosperms (Magnoliopsida)
Monocotyledons
Order: Frogspoon family (Alismatales)
Family: Pondweed (Potamogetonaceae)
Genre: Pondweed
Scientific name
Potamogeton
L.

The pondweeds(Potamogeton) are a genus of plants within the pondweed family (Potamogetonaceae). These aquatic plants are found in temperate and subtropical regions almost worldwide. The best known and most common species is probably the floating pondweed(Potamogeton natans), which can form large floating leaf carpets on bodies of water.

Description

Close-up of flowers of floating pondweed(Potamogeton natans); the apparent petals are connective appendages of the stamens

They are perennial (perennial) herbaceous plants. They are submerged or floating leaf plants rooted in the water bottom. Both very delicately built species and those with strong submerged and/or floating leaves occur. Some species develop shoot axes up to 3 meters long and colonize correspondingly deep water zones. The often reticulate, translucent submersible leaves are usually alternate and have a leaf sheath. The simple leaf blades are narrow-lineal to roundish.

The terminal, inconspicuous greenish, spikey inflorescences protrude from the water for wind pollination. The missing perianth is replaced by four stamen appendages.

Site conditions

Fruiting spikes of the Pondweed(Potamogeton acutifolius)

Diving leaves of the knotweed(Potamogeton polygonifolius)

Common dwarf pondweed(Potamogeton pusillus)

Pondweeds are the eponymous and characteristic genus of the phytosociological class “Potamogetonetea pectinati R. Tx. & Prsg. 1942 corr. Oberd. 1979″ (= pondweed and floating leaf communities) and several associations and dominance communities distinguished therein. The plants form “underwater forests”, which provide a habitat for numerous animals and opportunities for egg/spawn laying, as well as contributing to the oxygen supply and self-purification of a water body.

Different types of water bodies are colonized: Still waters such as ponds, pools, small pools and submerged leaf zones of large lakes, but also weakly to moderately flowing waters such as streams, rivers, canals and ditches. Some species are adapted to lower-nutrient sites; however, most prefer moderately eutrophic waters. As a result of human intervention in the landscape – including water pollution, river straightening, ditch clearance – many pondweed species have become rare and are on the Red List of threatened plant species. Some pondweed populations have also been displaced by the spread of the neophytic waterweed, which has been anthropogenically naturalized in Europe.

Systematics and distribution

The genus Potamogeton was established in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum, 1, p. 126[1] established. Potamogeton natans L. was established as the lectotype species in 1909 by Norman Taylor in North American Flora, Volume 17, 1, p. 14.[2][3][4]

Of the genus of pondweeds(Potamogeton) discussed here, about 21 species occur in Central Europe (Germany), but also at least 17 hybrids of individual of these species, this can complicate the determination considerably.[5][6]

Some species found their way into aquaristics.[7]

There are 75 to 95 or 100 Potamogeton species and at least 69 hybrids:[3][4]

  • Potamogeton ×absconditus

    .Kaplan, Fehrer & Hellq. (= Potamogeton perfoliatus × Potamogeton richardsonii): it occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]

  • Pointed-leaved pondweed(Potamogeton acutifolius Link ex Roem. & Schult.): It is widespread in Europe to the Caucasus region.[3][5][6]
  • Potamogeton ×aemulans Z.Kaplan, Hellq. & Fehrer (= Potamogeton bicupulatus × Potamogeton epihydrus): It occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Alpine pondweed(Potamogeton alpinus Balb.): It is distributed with two subspecies in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.[3][5][6]
  • Potamogeton amplifolius Tuck.: It is widespread from Canada to the USA and Mexico.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×anguillanus Koidz. (= Potamogeton perfoliatus × Potamogeton wrightii): It occurs in China, Japan and New Guinea.[3]
  • Narrow-leaved pondweed(Potamogeton ×angustifolius J.Presl = Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton lucens)[5][6] It occurs from Europe to the western Himalayas.[3]
  • Potamogeton antaicus Hagstr. : It is found only in the Cape Verde Islands.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×apertus Miki (= Potamogeton octandrus × Potamogeton pusillus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×assidens Z.Kaplan, Zalewska-Gał. & Ronikier (= Potamogeton nodosus × Potamogeton perfoliatus): it occurs from Europe to Africa.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×attenuatus Hagstr. (= Potamogeton polygonus × Potamogeton pusillus): it occurs in southern Brazil.[3]
  • Potamogeton australiensis A.Benn. It is widespread in southeastern Australia.[3]
  • Potamogeton × belorussicus D.Dubovik (= Potamogeton compressus × Potamogeton friesii): it occurs in Eastern Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×bennettii Fryer (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton trichoides): it occurs in western Europe.[3]
  • Berchtold ‘s dwarf pondweed(Potamogeton berchtoldii Fever)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton bicupulatus Fernald: It is common in eastern Canada and the northern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton biformis Hagstr.: It is distributed from Siberia to Central Asia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×billupsii Fryer (= Potamogeton coloratus × Potamogeton gramineus): it occurs in northern Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×biwaensis Miki (= Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton maackianus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×cadburyae Dandy & G.Taylor (= Potamogeton epihydrus × Potamogeton lucens): it occurs in western Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton chamissoi A.Benn.: It is found only in Mauritius.[3]
  • Potamogeton cheesemanii A.Benn. It occurs in New Zealand and south-eastern Australia.[3]
  • Potamogeton chongyangensis W.X.Wang: It is found only in Hubei province of China.[3]
  • Potamogeton × clandestinus A.A.Bobrov, Zalewska-Gal. & Chemeris (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton natans): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×cognatus Asch. & Graebn. (= Potamogeton perfoliatus × Potamogeton praelongus)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Colored pondweed(Potamogeton coloratus Hornem.)[5][6]
  • Flat-stemmed pondweed(Potamogeton compressus L.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton confervoides Rchb.: It is widespread in the USA.[3]
  • Potamogeton × confinis Hagstr. (= Potamogeton friesii × Potamogeton pusillus): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×cooperi (Fryer) Fryer (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton perfoliatus)[5][6]: It occurs from Europe to the Arabian Peninsula.[3]
  • Curly Pondweed(Potamogeton crispus L.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton cristatus Regel & Maack: It is common in eastern Asia.[3]
  • Potamogeton delavayi A.Benn.: It is found only in Yunnan Province of China.[3]
  • Potamogeton distinctus A.Benn.: It is widely distributed from the Himalayas to extreme eastern Asia and on islands in the western Pacific.[3]
  • Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. : It is widespread in North America and occurs in Cuba.[3]
  • Potamogeton × drepanoides Z.Kaplan (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton oxyphyllus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton drummondii Benth.: It is widespread in southwestern Australia.[3]
  • Potamogeton epihydrus Raf.: It is common in North America, northwestern Scotland and northwestern England.[5]
  • Potamogeton ×exilis Z.Kaplan & Uotila (= Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton natans): it occurs in northern Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×fauriei (A.Benn.) Miki (= Potamogeton compressus × Potamogeton oxyphyllus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×faxonii Morong (= Potamogeton illinoensis × Potamogeton nodosus): it occurs in the USA.[3]
  • Potamogeton ferrugineus Hagstr. : It is distributed from Brazil to Argentina and Peru.[3]
  • Potamogeton floridanus Small: It is found only in northwestern Florida.[3]
  • Flooding pondweed(Potamogeton ×fluitans Roth = Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton natans)[5][6]: It occurs from Europe to the western Himalayas.[3]
  • Potamogeton foliosus Raf. It is widespread from North to Central America, on Caribbean islands and on Hawaii.[3]
  • Potamogeton fontigenus Y.H.Guo, X.Z.Sun & H.Q.Wang: It is found only in Shaanxi province of China.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×franconicus G.Fisch. (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton trichoides): It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Spiny Pondweed(Potamogeton friesii Rupr.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton fryeri A.Benn.: It is common in the extreme East Asia, Korea and Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton gayi A.Benn. It is widespread in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×gessnacensis G.Fisch. (= Potamogeton natans × Potamogeton polygonifolius)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Grass pondweed(Potamogeton gramineus L. )[5][6]: It thrives in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×griffithii A.Benn. (= Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton praelongus): It occurs in northwestern Europe and in Canada.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×grovesii Dandy & G.Taylor (= Potamogeton pusillus × Potamogeton trichoides): it occurs in Britain.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×hagstromii A.Benn. (= Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton richardsonii): It occurs from western Canada to the northern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×haynesii Hellq. & G.E.Crow (= Potamogeton strictifolius × Potamogeton zosteriformis): It occurs from eastern Canada to the northern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton × heslop-harrisonii W.A.Clark (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton gramineus): it occurs in northwestern Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton heterocaulis Z.S.Diao: It is common in China.[3]
  • Potamogeton hillii Morong: It is common in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton hoggarensis Dandy: It is found only in Ahaggar in Algeria and in the Tibesti Mountains in Chad.[3]
  • Potamogeton illinoensis Morong: It is widespread from Canada, through the USA and Mexico to Central and South America, and is found on Caribbean islands.[3][4]
  • Potamogeton ×inbaensis Kadono (= Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton wrightii): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton intortusifolius J.B.He, L.Y.Zhou & H.Q.Wang: It is found only in Hubei province of China.[3]
  • Potamogeton iriomotensis Masam.: It is found only in the Nansei Islands of Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×jacobsii Z.Kaplan, Fehrer & Hellq. (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton ochreatus): It occurs in southeastern Australia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×jutlandicus Zalewska-Gał. (= Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton praelongus): It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton juzepczukii P.I.Dorof. & Tzvelev: It is distributed from Siberia to Russia’s Far East.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×kamogawaensis Miki (= Potamogeton octandrus × Potamogeton oxyphyllus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton kashiensis Z.S.Diao: It is found only in Xinjiang, China.[3]
  • Potamogeton × khuzestanicus S.Abbasi, Afsharz. & Dinarvand (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton pusillus): It occurs in Iran.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×kyushuensis Kadono & Wiegleb (= Potamogeton maackianus × Potamogeton oxyphyllus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton lacunatifolius Papch.: It is found in western Siberia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×lanceolatifolius (Tiselius) C.D.Preston (= Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton nodosus): it occurs in Europe and the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×lanceolatus Sm. (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton coloratus): It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×leptocephalus Koidz. (= Potamogeton maackianus × Potamogeton perfoliatus): it occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton linguatus Hagstr.: It occurs from Chile to the Falkland Islands.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×lintonii Fryer (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton friesii)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Reflective pondweed(Potamogeton lucens L.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton × luxurians Z.Kaplan (= Potamogeton amplifolius × Potamogeton illinoensis): it occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton maackianus A.Benn.: It is widespread in Asia from Siberia and Japan to Sumatra.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×maemetsiae Zalewska-Gał. & Ronikier (= Potamogeton friesii × Potamogeton rutilus): it occurs in the Baltic States.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×malainoides Miki (= Potamogeton distinctus × Potamogeton wrightii): it occurs in East Asia.[3]
  • Potamogeton mandschuriensis (A.Benn.) A.Benn.: It is distributed from northeastern China to extreme East Asia.[3]
  • Potamogeton marianensis Cham. & Schltdl. : It occurs only in the Mariana Islands.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×mariensis Papch. (= Potamogeton biformis × Potamogeton nodosus): It occurs in Eastern Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×mirabilis Z.Kaplan, Hellq. & Fehrer (= Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton oakesianus): It occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton montevidensis A.Benn. It is distributed from Brazil to Uruguay and Argentina.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×mucronulatus (G.Fisch.) Papch. (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton pusillus): It occurs from European Russia to Western Siberia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×mysticus Morong (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton perfoliatus): it occurs in the eastern United States.[3]
  • Floating pondweed(Potamogeton natans L.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton ×nericius Hagstr.(Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton gramineus)[5][6]: It occurs in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×nervous Wolfg. (= Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton gramineus)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Shimmering pondweed(Potamogeton ×nitens Weber) (= Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton perfoliatus)[5][6]
  • Knotted pondweed(Potamogeton nodosus Poir.)[5][6]: It is distributed almost worldwide.[3]
  • Potamogeton nomotoensis Kadono & T.Nog.: It is found only in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton oakesianus J.W.Robbins: It is distributed from southern Canada and into the USA.[3]
  • Blunt-leaved pondweed(Potamogeton obtusifolius Mert. & W.D.J.Koch)[5][6]: It thrives in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.[3]
  • Potamogeton ochreatus Raoul: It is distributed from New Guinea to Australia to New Caledonia and New Zealand.[3]
  • Potamogeton octandrus Poir.: It is widespread in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×ogdenii Hellq. & R.L.Hilton (= Potamogeton hillii × Potamogeton zosteriformis): It occurs from southeastern Ontario to the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×olivaceus Baagøe ex G.Fisch. (= Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton crispus)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×orientalis Hagstr. (= Potamogeton oxyphyllus × Potamogeton pusillus): it occurs from Assam to China.[3]
  • Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq.: It is distributed from Russia’s Far East through Japan and Korea to Sumatra.[3]
  • Potamogeton papuanicus G.Wiegleb: It is found only in Papua New Guinea.[3]
  • Potamogeton paramoanus R.R.Haynes & Holm-Niels. It is distributed from Costa Rica to Peru.[3]
  • Potamogeton parmatus Hagstr.: It occurs in Madagascar.[3]
  • Pondweed(Potamogeton perfoliatus L.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton ×philippinensis A.Benn. (= Potamogeton maackianus × Potamogeton wrightii): It occurs in the Philippines.[3]
  • Knotweed pondweed(Potamogeton polygonifolius Pourr.)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton polygonus Cham. It is widespread from Brazil via Uruguay to Argentina.[3]
  • Stretched pondweed(Potamogeton praelongus Wulfen)[5][6]
  • Potamogeton ×prussicus Hagstr. (= Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton perfoliatus): it occurs in Europe and Canada.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×pseudofriesii Dandy & G.Taylor (= Potamogeton acutifolius × Potamogeton friesii): it occurs in Britain.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×pseudosarmaticus Papch. (= Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton sarmaticus): It occurs in European Russia.[3]
  • Potamogeton pulcher Tuck.: It is distributed from Canada to the USA.[3]
  • Common dwarf pondweed(Potamogeton pusillus L.)[5][6]: It is distributed almost worldwide.[3]
  • Potamogeton quinquenervius Hagstr. : It is found only in New South Wales.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×rectifolius A.Benn. (= Potamogeton nodosus × Potamogeton richardsonii): it occurs in the USA.[3]
  • Potamogeton richardii Solms: It is common in Africa and Madagascar.[3]
  • Potamogeton richardsonii (A.Benn.) Rydb. It occurs from Kamchatka to Alaska.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×ripensis Baagøe (= Potamogeton compressus × Potamogeton trichoides): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×rivularis Gillot (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton polygonifolius): it occurs in Western Europe and the Azores.[3]
  • Potamogeton robbinsii Oakes: it is widely distributed in North America.[3]
  • Reddish pondweed(Potamogeton rutilus Wolfg.)[5][6]: It is widespread from Europe to Western Siberia.[3]
  • Willow-leaved pondweed(Potamogeton ×salicifolius Wolfg. = Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton perfoliatus)[5][6] It occurs from Europe to the western Himalayas.[3]
  • Potamogeton sarmaticus Mäemets: It occurs from Eastern Europe to Central Asia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×saxonicus Hagstr. (= Potamogeton obtusifolius × Potamogeton pusillus): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×schreberi G.Fisch. (= Potamogeton natans × Potamogeton nodosus)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton schweinfurthii A.Benn.: It is common in the Mediterranean region and Africa to Arabia.[3]
  • Potamogeton sclerocarpus K.Schum.: It is widespread in Brazil.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×scoliophyllus Hagstr. (= Potamogeton amplifolius × Potamogeton illinoensis): it occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton × serrulifer Z.Kaplan (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton schweinfurthii): it occurs in Italy.[3]
  • Potamogeton sibiricus A.Benn.: It occurs from Siberia to Alaska.[3]
  • Potamogeton skvortsovii Klinkova: It is distributed from European Russia to Kazakhstan.[3]
  • Potamogeton solomonensis G.Wiegleb: It occurs only in the Solomon Islands.[3]
  • Ribbed pondweed(Potamogeton ×sparganiifolius Laest. ex Fr. = Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton natans)[5][6]: It occurs in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere.[3]
  • Spatulate pondweed(Potamogeton ×spathulatus Schrad. ex W.D.J.Koch & Ziz; = Potamogeton alpinus × Potamogeton polygonifolius)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton × spathuliformis (J.W.Robbins) Morong (Syn.:Potamogeton ×deminutus Hagstr. = Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton illinoensis): it occurs in the northern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton spirilliformis Hagstr. (Syn.: Potamogeton reniacoensis Sparre): It is widespread from Brazil through Uruguay to Argentina and Chile.[3]
  • Potamogeton spirillus Tuck.: It is widespread in Canada and in the USA.[3]
  • Potamogeton stenostachys K.Schum.: It is widespread in Brazil.[3]
  • Potamogeton strictifolius A.Benn. It is distributed in Eastern Siberia and in North America.[3]
  • Potamogeton suboblongus Hagstr.: It occurs in New Zealand.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×subrufus Hagstr. (= Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton nodosus): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×subsessilis Hagstr. (= Potamogeton epihydrus × Potamogeton nodosus): it occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×sudermanicus Hagstr. (= Potamogeton acutifolius × Potamogeton berchtoldii): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton sulcatus A.Benn.: It occurs in eastern Australia.[3]
  • Potamogeton sumatranus Miq.: It is found only in Sumatra.[3]
  • Potamogeton tennesseensis Fernald: It is common in the eastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton tepperi A.Benn.: It is common in the Himalayas to Assam and in Australia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×torssandrii (Tiselius) Dörfl. (= Potamogeton gramineus × Potamogeton lucens × Potamogeton perfoliatus): It occurs in northern and eastern Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton × tosaensis Kadono, Horii & T.Yaman. (= Potamogeton octandrus × Potamogeton pusillus): It occurs in Japan.[3]
  • Potamogeton tricarinatus F.Muell. & A.Benn.: It occurs in Australia and New Caledonia.[3]
  • Hairy pondweed(Potamogeton trichoides Cham. & Schltdl. )[5][6]
  • Potamogeton tubulatus Hagstr.: It is common in Central Asia.[3]
  • Potamogeton ulei K.Schum.: It is distributed in southern Brazil.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×undulatus Wolfg. (= Potamogeton crispus × Potamogeton praelongus)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton uruguayensis A.Benn. & Graebn.: It occurs in Uruguay.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×variifolius Thore (= Potamogeton berchtoldii × Potamogeton natans)[5][6]: It occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton vaseyi J.W.Robbins: It is widely distributed in Canada and the USA.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×vepsicus A.A.Bobrov & Chemeris (= Potamogeton natans × Potamogeton praelongus): it occurs in Europe.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×versicolor Z.Kaplan, Hellq. & Fehrer (= Potamogeton epihydrus × Potamogeton perfoliatus): It occurs in the northeastern United States.[3]
  • Potamogeton wrightii Morong, Syn.: P. malaianus: It is common in Asia and islands in the northwestern Pacific.[3]
  • Potamogeton ×yamagataensis Kadono & Wiegleb (= Potamogeton natans × Potamogeton octandrus): it occurs in Japan.[3]

Note: The taxonomic position of the dwarf pondweeds Potamogeton pusillus and Potamogeton berchtoldii has not yet been adequately clarified due to their great variability. Since both species are very difficult to distinguish, they are also treated as the collective species “Potamogeton pusillus agg.”.[5][6]

No longer to the genus Potamogeton, but to Stuckenia Börner belong for example:[3][8]

  • Potamogeton amblyophyllus C.A.Mey. → Stuckenia amblyophylla (C.A.Mey.) Holub
  • Thread pondweed Potamogeton filiformis Pers. → Stuckenia filiformis (Pers.) Börner
  • Potamogeton macrocarpus Dobrocz.Stuckenia macrocarpa (Dobrocz.) Tzvelev
  • Comb Pondweed(Potamogeton pectinatus L. ) and Swiss Pondweed(Potamogeton helveticus (G. Fisch.) W.D.J. Koch) → Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Börner
  • Potamogeton ×suecicus K. Richt. (= Potamogeton filiformis × Potamogeton pectinatus) → Stuckenia ×suecica (K.Richt.) Holub
  • Potamogeton vaginatus Turcz.Stuckenia vaginata (Turcz.) Holub: It is common in North America, northern Asia, eastern Sweden and western Finland.[5]

Literature

  • Z. Kaplan: Phenotypic plasticity in Potamogeton (Potamogetonaceae). In: Folia Geobot. Phytotax., Volume 37, 2002, pp. 141-170.
  • Henning Haeupler, Thomas Muer: Bildatlas der Farn- und Blüten pflanzen Deutschlands (= The Fern and Flowering Pl ants of Germany. Volume 2). Published by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3364-4.
  • Encyclopedia of Biology, vol. 5, Herder-Verlag, Freiburg 1985, ISBN 3-451-19645-X
  • Richard Pott: Die Pflanzengesellschaften Deutschlands. UTB, Ulmer-Verlag, Stuttgart 1992. ISBN 3-8252-8067-5

Individual references

  1. Linné 1753 scanned at biodiversitylibrary.org.
  2. Potamogeton at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis Retrieved August 23, 2014.
  3. a b c PotamogetonIn Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN ), USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al James Edgar Dandy: Potamogeton L. In: Thomas Gaskell Tutin et al: Flora Europaea. Vol. 5, pp. 7-11. Cambridge University Press 1980. ISBN 0-521-20108-X
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Klaus van de Weyer, Carsten Schmidt, Birgit Kreimeier: Identification key for aquatic macrophytes (vascular plants, stoneworts, mosses) in Germany. Volumes 1 + 2. technical contributions of the LUGV (Brandenburg), issue no. 119 + 120, Potsdam 2011.
  6. Christel Kasselmann: Aquarium Plants. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart 1995; 2nd, revised and expanded edition 1999, ISBN 3-8001-7454-5, pp. 400-402(Potamogeton gayi, Potamogeton schweinfurthii, Potamogeton wrightii).
  7. Z. Kaplan: A taxonomic revision of Stuckenia (Potamogetonaceae) in Asia, with notes on the diversity and variation of the genus on a worldwide scale. In: Folia Geobotanica, Volume 43, 2008, pp. 159-234.

Web links

Commons: Pondweeds– Collection of pictures, videos and audio files