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Pâncota

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Pâncota
Pankota
Wappen von Pâncota
Pâncota (Rumänien)
(46° 19′ 53″ N, 21° 41′ 32″O)
Basic data
State: RomaniaRumänien Romania
Historic Region: Screech area
Circle: Arad
Coordinates: 46° 20′ N, 21° 42′ ECoordinates 46° 19′ 53″ N, 21° 41′ 32″ O
Time Zone: OEZ (UTC+2)
Height: 110 m
Area: 66.96 km²
Residents: 6.946 (October 20, 2011[1])
Population Density: 104 inhabitants per km²
Zip code: 315600
Telephone area code: (+40) 02 57
License plate: AR
Structure and management (as of 2020[2])
Community type: City
Outline: 1 Parish/catastral municipality: Măderat
Mayor: Dan-Ștefan Pocrișer (PSD)
Mailing address: Str. T. Vladimirescu, nr. 68
loc. Pâncota, jud. Arad, RO-315600
Website:
Other
Town Festival: June

Pâncota or Pîncota [

ˈpɨnkota] (German and Hungarian Pankota) is a small town in Arad County, Romania.

Geographical position

Location of Pâncota in Arad County

Pâncota is located in western Romania, in the easternmost part of the Great Hungarian Plain, on the western edge of the Apuseni Mountains. The county capital Arad is located about 35 km to the southwest. Pâncota is on the railway line from Arad to Brad. Five local trains run daily in both directions (2009). There are bus connections to Arad and Câmpeni. Until 1991, the local railway Arad-Podgoria also ran to Pâncota.

History

Remains of a 2nd/3rd century Dacian settlement have been found in the area of the present city.[3]
The name Villa Pankotha was first mentioned in 1202/1203; however, the attribution to the present town is uncertain.[4] In 1216, according to the historian Sándor Márki, a Benedictine abbey is attested on the territory of Pâncota; probably the settlement formed around the abbey. Pâncota belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary at that time.

After the Mongol invasion in 1241, a castle was built. In 1322 the abbey became the seat of an archdeaconry. In 1375 the Hungarian King Louis I donated the castle to the Losonczy noble family, in whose possession it remained for about 170 years. In 1475 Pâncota was raised to the status of an oppidum (market town).

After the Battle of Mohács (1526), the Kingdom of Hungary disintegrated. Pâncota became part of the Principality of Transylvania, which was dependent on the Ottoman Empire, and was eventually occupied and plundered by the Turks; the Benedictine abbey became extinct. The Transylvanian prince Sigismund Báthory recaptured Pâncota in 1595, before the village was again taken by the Turks. During the Ottoman occupation, Pâncota was the seat of a subordinate administrative unit.

After several defeats of Turkish troops against the Austrians, Pâncota became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the Peace of Karlowitz in 1699. At first, Hungarians settled in the village. It became the seat of a feudal lordship; in 1756 and 1784 there were uprisings of the serf peasants.[3]

In 1776, 46 German families settled in Pâncota as part of the First Swabian Migration; in 1817, another 11 families from Gosheim followed.[5] During this time, Duke Schulkowsky, who came from Poland, bought the estate in Pâncota.

Economy

In the second half of the 19th century, Pâncota became the largest market town in Arad County. Intensive viticulture began. The estate of the duke’s family fell into disrepair during the First World War[6] and came into the possession of the Romanian state after the annexation of the region to Romania in 1918/1920.[3]

After the First World War, a furniture factory was established. However, most of the inhabitants continued to live from agriculture.[6] During the period of communist rule and even more so after the 1989 revolution, most German residents emigrated to the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1968 Pâncota was declared a town.

The main industries are agriculture and food processing. In addition, there is a brickyard, a factory for car accessories, a wood processing company, clothing factories, a bakery and a mill.

In 2011, an oil deposit of approximately 1.5 million tons with an estimated value of over one billion euros was discovered near Pâncota by the company Universal Premium Bucharest. According to managing director Victor Roşu, the company has invested around ten million euros in research and prospecting so far, and this sum will grow to 15 million euros by the time production begins. Exploitation is estimated to take 20 years. The oil is located at the relatively shallow depth of 500 to 2100 meters. Drilling on the site started as early as August 2011 and, after an interruption during the winter months, resumed in early April 2012. According to mayor Josef Retter, the extraction of the oil deposits will contribute to the creation of 250 new jobs.[7]

Population

In 1880, 6217 people lived in the territory of the present town, of whom 3468 were Romanians, 1341 Hungarians and 1078 Germans. 4132 lived in Pâncota itself, 2085 in the now incorporated village of Măderat. The population peaked as early as 1910 at 8022, and has been trending downward since then. The 2002 census registered 7186 inhabitants in Pâncota, including 5699 Romanians, 604 Hungarians, 589 Roma, 216 Germans, 50 Ukrainians and 22 Slovaks. 5804 lived in the town proper, 1382 in Măderat.[8]

Places of interest

  • Sulkowski Palace (1825-1850), today town hall
  • City centre (predominantly 19th century)
  • historical post office (18th century)
  • Cetatea Turcească(Turkish Castle), but probably from pre-Turkish times (13th century)

Born in Pâncota

  • Gergely Csiky (1842-1891), Hungarian playwright

See also

  • List of German and Hungarian names of Romanian places
  • List of localities in Banat

Literature

  • Elke Hoffmann, Peter-Dietmar Leber, Walter Wolf (eds.): Städte und Dörfer. Beiträge zur Siedlungsgeschichte der Deutschen im Ban at (= Das Banat und die Banater Schwaben. Vol. 5). Landsmannschaft der Banater Schwaben, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-922979-63-0.

Web links

Commons: Pâncota– Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual references

  1. Census 2011 in Romania (MS Excel; 1.3 MB)
  2. Data at prezenta.roaep.ro, retrieved 10 February 2021 (Romanian).
  3. a b c www.pancota.home.ro, retrieved 24 March 2009(Memento of 25 February 2009 in the Internet Archive)
  4. www.pancota.home.ro, retrieved 24 March 2009(Memento of 25 February 2009 in the Internet Archive)
  5. Website of the hometown community Pankota
  6. a b Document of the HOG Pankota, retrieved on 24 March 2009
  7. adz.ro, ADZ, Balthasar Waitz: The Unearthed Treasure of Pankota. Oil deposits worth a billion euros discovered, 19 April 2012
  8. Census 2002, retrieved 24 March 2009 (PDF; 784 kB)