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Nienhagen (Schwanebeck)

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Nienhagen
Town of Schwanebeck
Wappen von Nienhagen

Coordinates 51° 56′ 59″ N, 11° 9′ 59″ E

Height: 94 m above sea level
Area: 6,73 km²
Residents: 415 (31 Dec. 2008)
Population Density: 62 inhabitants/km²
Incorporation: 1.January 2010
Zip code: 39397
Area code: 039403
Nienhagen, Luftaufnahme (2015)
Nienhagen, aerial view (2015)

Nienhagen is a district of the town of Schwanebeck in the district of Harz in Saxony-Anhalt.

Geography

The village is located in the northern Harz foreland on the Holtemme, northeast of the district town Halberstadt. The connecting road between Kloster Gröningen and Schwanebeck and the railway line Magdeburg-Halberstadt pass through the village. Until 2000 the railway line to Dedeleben branched off from Nienhagen. Furthermore, the railway line Aschersleben-Nienhagen ended here.

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Nienhagen – town view, Ernst-Thälmann-Straße – corner Turmstraße. View out of the village in direction Schwanebeck. On the left in the background a memorial for the fallen (1914/1918)

History

Middle Ages and early history

The area around Nienhagen, originally a swampy lowland, was probably cultivated by Bishop Rudolf I of Halberstadt in the course of its reclamation. At the end of the 12th century, Dutch settlers were also recruited with benefits. In the course of this, Nienhagen probably developed from a monastery estate. The former knight’s estate, whose buildings still characterise the townscape today, probably came into being later as a merger of two secular estates.

The first documentary mention of Nienhagen was in 1138 as Bod-Sircstide. In 1225 the place was called Bot-Sircstide sive Nuenhagen. From 1480 the place is called Bod-Zerxstidde, at the same time the place names changed until the 16th century, including Nigenhagen. Between the 16th and 17th centuries the name Neuenhagen was in use, but it disappeared again soon after.

From 1138 to 1804, the St. Johannes monastery from Halberstadt(also Johanniskloster) was the spiritual landlord of the village. Still today there are traces of a former monastery farm (Vorwerk des Klosteramtes St. Johann), near the church in Nienhagen. In 1220 a Friedrich of Nienhagentestified to the donationNote 1 witnessed the donation of two hectares to Hötensleben by Theoderich Edler von Adenoys (von Adensen).[1] Friedrich was an after-loanman of Dietrich von Hasselfelde[2]. As early as 1231 it is recorded that Bishop Friedrich II of Kirchberg granted the peasants of Nienhagen (cives in Nigenhagen) the right to elect the priest at any time.[3] Later the farmers renounced this privilege.

The first secular rulers to hold Nienhagen in fief (at least until the 16th century) were the Counts of Regenstein. Among them were the knights Spiegel. As early as 1347, the knight Albrecht Spiegel from Schwanebeck seized some farms from the monastery without their consent in the course of the so-called Regenstein War. The monastery farm was also severely damaged in the process. The Spiegel family shared the property with the von Bornstedt family. Dietrich von Bornstedt was listed as a share owner in 1494. While the von Bornstedt were still listed as owners until 1589, the von Mahrenholz already took over the other estate in Nienhagen around 1442. Both estates were taken over by the barons Mahrenholz[4]presumably in the 18th century, and merged. Parts of their property were leased out. In 1559 the tithes from Nienhagen belonged to the House of Gröningen, the other half to Heinrich von Hoym, as a vassal of the Counts of Regenstein.[5]

Nienhagen was part of the diocese of Halberstadt until 1648, afterwards it was subordinated to the principality of Halberstadt. The former manor in the village was once the seat of a patrimonial court, to which the village was subject until 1848.Note 2

In 1785, 224 inhabitants were counted for Nienhagen. In 1796 Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi registered for the parish village Nienhagen, formerly part of the Oscherslebischen Kreis, 38 fireplaces, a manor, a monastery farm, a sheep farm, a water mill, an inn (Krug) and a smithy.[6]

Industrialization

In 1815, the village was incorporated into the Magdeburg administrative district of the Prussian province of Saxony. Nienhagen with the manor was part of the district of Krottorf. In the middle of the 18th century the parish village was ready for parliament and contained a total of 273 inhabitants (exclusively of Protestant denomination) in 42 dwellings (among them four farms, five coachmen’s houses and 33 cottagers), a Protestant church with a pastor, a sexton’s house and a schoolhouse with a teacher, a restaurant, watermill and oil mill. A large part of the population, including many craftsmen, was considered poor and undernourished at that time. The village boundaries shortly after separation enclosed 2,102 acres of farmland, 180 acres of meadows, 11 acres of gardens, and 215 acres of meadow. Much of the agricultural land was comprised of what was then the manor. Jurisdiction and patronage were now held by the state.[7] Towards the end of the 19th century Nienhagen was known for its landlords who introduced new agricultural specialities such as herd books and horse breeding as well as wicker and noble fruit plantations. The number of inhabitants in Nienhagen grew steadily, so that in 1885 a total of 501 inhabitants were registered. Since 1 July 1867 Nienhagen belonged to the North German Confederation within the district of Oschersleben. With effect from 30 September 1929 a territorial reform took place in the district, analogous to the development in the rest of the Free State of Prussia, in which previously independent manor districts were dissolved and assigned to neighbouring rural communities. Shortly before the end of the Second World War, the province of Saxony was dissolved on 1 July 1944, so that Nienhagen belonged to the new province of Magdeburg.

Postwar

After the war, Nienhagen became part of the Soviet occupation zone after the district was initially occupied by the American Allied Forces in 1945. In 1952 the district of Oschersleben was dissolved by the GDR in the course of the administrative reform. Nienhagen became part of the administrative community Schwanebeck in the district Halberstadt. Handicrafts, still omnipresent in Nienhagen at the time of industrialisation, declined more and more until the 1970s, and the village became predominantly agricultural in character. A furniture factory was the largest employer in the village. Working citizens therefore often commuted to the then district town of Halberstadt or to Oschersleben.

On 1 January 2005, the independent municipality became part of the Bode-Holtemme administrative community, and in 2010 was incorporated into the town of Schwanebeck.[8]

Politics

Mayor, City Council

Coat of arms and flag

The coat of arms was approved on 25 August 1995 by the regional council Magdeburg.

Blazon: “Diagonally divided by silver over green; above a soaring black golden armed and contoured pheasant with green head and neck and red blaze around the eye, below a silver sycamore branch with three silver leaves and three golden fruits.”

The coat of arms is a heraldic-graphic revision of a previously unconfirmed coat of arms created in 1988 for the 850th anniversary of the municipality. The colours of the shield silver and green were chosen after the flag of the local choral society of 1892 as well as after the colours of the shooting club. The flying pheasant cock symbolizes the hunting reserve of Nienhagen and at the same time the fertility of the landscape. The silver sycamore branch with the golden fruits symbolizes as a community specific the protected park, in which large sycamore trees are preserved.

The coat of arms was designed by the Magdeburg heraldist Erika Fiedler.

The flag shows the colors white – green with the applied coat of arms.

Partnerships

A twinning between Nienhagen (Schwanebeck) and Nienhagen (district of Celle) has existed since 8 March 1991. A Holtemmenweg in Nienhagen (Celle) refers to this partnership.[9]

Culture and sights

Nienhagen – Parish Church St. Martini

Nienhagen – manor, former manor house

Nienhagen – Former monastery courtyard in the immediate vicinity of the church

Nienhagen – Former water mill in the manor house

Museums

  • Since 2010 Doll and Teddy Museum, with exhibition space in a railway carriage[10]

Buildings

  • Parish church St. Martini
  • Former estate, consisting of manor house, outbuildings (partly converted to residential purposes) and the former water mill.

The manor was first mentioned in 1196. The original builders are not knownNote 3. In 1837 Carl von Wulffen, Captain (ret.), took over the property. By then the ownership had already changed frequently. In 1862, with the industrialisation, the manor and the mill with the associated lands passed into the possession of the district councillor from Groß-Wanzleben, Philipp-August Kühne, who acquired the manor for his eldest son Philipp.[11] The Kühne family owned the estate until it was expropriated in the course of the land reform in 1945, when the property went to the province of Saxony. This was followed by the parcelling of the land, the distribution of cattle and fodder to new farmers, and in the following year, the rededication of the estate as an agricultural school. In 1947 a training company for agricultural professions was located here. In 1951, the Nienhagen and Emersleben estates were merged, with Emersleben becoming the main farm. In the 1970s the VEB Röderhof took over the Emersleben-Nienhagen estate. 15 years later the stables with the farm animals were taken over by the LPG Schwanebeck-Nienhagen.

  • Monastery courtyard. Former estate of the St. Johannes monastery in Halberstadt.

Until the 16th century the monastery managed the estate itself. Afterwards it was leased to the Bornstedt manor owners, Johann Philipp Friedrich Storren (1765 to 1773) and Gottfried Wilhelm Willke (1789 to 1805). After the abolition of the monastery, the monastery farm was sold to a lieutenant colonel von Heindel until it was acquired in 1837 by the knight’s estate owner Wulffen and in 1865 by Philipp-August Kühne, who had already taken over the knight’s estate from the Wulffens three years earlier.

Parks

  • Extensive park with old plane trees, not far from the estate.
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Nienhagen – Park: On the left the brook Hagen, in the background the former water mill

Personalities

  • Curt Aschen (Ascan) Freiherr von Marenholz (Mahrenholz) (1619-1674), Privy Councillor and Envoy to the Electorate of Brandenburg; President of the Government of the Principality of Halberstadt and Chamberlain. buried in the Envoy’s Cemetery at Regensburg.[12][13]
  • Friedrich Gerhard Döleke (1757-1834), royal Pruss. Major at Schleusingen, Company Commander
  • Wilhelm Heinrich Döleke († after 1815), professor at the grammar school in Hildesheim, director of the Henneberg grammar school in Schleusingen

Notes

Note 1 In 1294 a Johann von Nienhagen, presumably one of his descendants, is mentioned in documents.[14]
Note 2 Part of the Nienhagen estate archive is administered in the Saxony-Anhalt state archive in Wernigerode.
Note 3 However, it cannot be excluded that these are the mentioned ministerials and brothers Marschall Ludger von Nienhagen and Truchsess Friedrich von Nienhagen participating in a court day in 1194.[15]

Web links

Commons: Nienhagen (Schwanebeck)– Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Literature

  • Historische Commission der Provinz Sachsen (ed.): Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Sachsen. Heft 14, Kreis Oschersleben, Halle a.d.S. 1891.

Individual references

  1. Stefan Kunze: Geschichte des Augustiner-Klosters Hamersleben, nebst alten historischen Nachrichten von einzelnen Städten und Burgen des vormaligen Bisthums und Erbfürstenthums Halberstadt, etc. 1835, p. 10 online
  2. Ludwig Ferdinand Niemann: Geschichte des vormaligen Bisthums und jetzigen Fürstenthums, insbesondere über der Stadt Halberstadt, von den ältesten bis auf die neuesten Zeiten. Volume 1, 1829, p. 135 online
  3. Forschungen zur Kirchlichen Rechtsgeschichte und zum Kirchenrecht. Volume 6, 1966, p. 262
  4. Anton Friedrich Büsching, Benjamin Gottfried Weinart: Magazin für die neue Historie und Geographie. Vol. 14, 1780, p. 284 online
  5. Deductio iuris et facti pro colorando possessorio: In the matter of Prussia contra Brunswick and Lüneburg concerning the county of Reinstein, 1713, p. 203 online
  6. Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi: Erdbeschreibung der Preußischen Monarchie. Vol. 1, Vol. 4, 1796, p. 518 online
  7. J. A. F. Hermes: Historisch-geographisch-statistisch-topographisches Handbuch vom Regierungsbezirke Magdeburg. Topographischer Theil, Vol. 2, 1842, p. 272 online
  8. StBA: Territorial changes from 01 January to 31 December 2010
  9. Internet presence of the municipality of Nienhagen (Celle), online
  10. Doll Museum Nienhagen now even bigger. In: volksstimme.de, 24 August 2013, online(Memento of 8 December 2015 in the Internet Archive)
  11. Amtsrat Phillip Kühne’sche Family Foundation online
  12. Burial register for the cemetery of the Protestant envoys at the Perpetual Diet (Envoys’ Cemetery) near the Dreieinigkeitskirche 1 in Regensburg for the period 1641 to 1787 (1803). online(Memento of the Originals of 6 November 2014 in the Internet Archive) Info:The archive linkwas inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check original and archive link according to instructions and then remove this note.@1@2Template:Webachiv/IABot/dreieinigkeitskirche.musterwebsite-evangelisch.de
  13. Some emendirte Verzeichnisse derjenigen Churfürsten, Fürsten und Stände deß h. roman Empire … as they were at the time of the … Leopoldo elected Roman Emperor … …afterwards… Regensburg on the 8th of June 1662 … Imperial Diet … …have arrived one by one… have.o.O. 1664. online
  14. Karl Gustav Schmidt: Urkundenbuch der Stadt Halberstadt. Volume 2, 1879, p. 522.
  15. Thomas L. Zotz: Die Deutschen Königspfalzen: Repertorium der Pfalzen, Königshöfe und übrigen Aufenthaltsorte der Könige im deutschen Reich des Mittelalters. Volume 2, 1991, p. 487 online