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Lubomierz

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Lubomierz
Wappen von Lubomierz
Lubomierz (Polen)
Lubomierz (51° 0′ 45″ N, 15° 30′ 39″O)
Lubomierz
Basic data
State: Poland
Voivodeship: Lower Silesia
Powiat: Lwówek Śląski
Area: 8.05 km²
Geographical Location: 51° 1′ N, 15° 31′ OCoordinates 51° 0′ 45″ N, 15° 30′ 39″O
Height: 354 m n.p.m.
Residents: 1979
(Jun 30, 2019)[1]
Zip code: 59-623
Telephone area code: (+48) 75
License plate: DLW
Economy and transport
Nearest int. airport: Wroclaw
Gmina
Gmina type: Town and country municipality
Gmina Outline: 13 School boards
Area: 130,39 km²
Residents: 6192
(Jun 30, 2019)[1]
Population Density: 47 inhabitants/km²
Community Number (GUS): 0212023
Administration (as of 2018)
Mayor: Marek Chrabąszcz
Address: pl. Wolności 1
59-623 Lubomierz
Web presence: www.lubomierz.pl

Lubomierz (German Liebenthal; 1945-1947 Polish Miłosna) is a small town with about 2,000 inhabitants in the powiat of Lwówecki in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in Poland. It is the capital of the town and rural municipality of the same name, which belongs to the Neisse Euroregion.

Geographical position

Liebenthal(Liebenthl.) south of Löwenberg on a map from 1905

The town lies in the south-west of Lower Silesia, approximately 40 km south-east of Görlitz and 18 km north-west of Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg ). The town stretches in a valley of the Jizera Mountains foothills on the Oľdza River.

History

St. Maternus

Former Benedictine monastery

Liebenthal Town Hall

Commercial buildings on the market square.

The town owes its name to the Knights of Liebenthal, first recorded in 1251, who owned land in the area. The widow Jutta von Liebenthal founded a Benedictine convent in 1287, after which the village, which depended on it, was expanded and received the Magdeburg-Löwenberg town charter from Bolko I von Schweidnitz-Jauer in 1291. In the same year Liebenthal was walled in.[2]

The new town extended along the Prague-Görlitz trade route, along which a long street market was established. In its importance the town corresponded to a market town. Various privileges, such as the brewing and wine-pressing rights or the linen trade, as well as the annual fair allowed a certain upswing, which was, however, slowed down by frequent fires. The town remained under the obligation to pay taxes to the monastery, which also held jurisdiction and had an influence on the town administration.[3] The monastery church was also the seat of an archipresbyterate.

Liebenthal belonged to the Duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer, which, after the death of Duke Bolko II in 1368, fell under hereditary law to the Crown of Bohemia, with Bolko’s widow Agnes of Habsburg being entitled to a lifelong usufruct. In 1408 the Bohemian King Wenceslas IV confirmed the privileges.[3] After the devastation of the Hussite wars in 1426, a brotherhood of marksmen was founded. In 1526 Liebenthal, together with the Duchy of Schweidnitz, passed to the Habsburgs in their capacity as Kings of Bohemia.
In 1544 a school was founded. From the middle of the 16th century there was an economic boom due to the local linen weaving trade, which lasted until the Thirty Years’ War.[3]

After the First Silesian War in 1742, Liebenthal fell to Prussia. In 1816 it was assigned to the district of Löwenberg. In 1829 the town council acquired the Dominium, or monastery outwork Liebenthal for 50,000 Reichstaler.[2] Even though the inhabitants of Liebenthal were almost entirely Catholic, the importance of Protestantism increased with Prussian rule. In the course of secularisation the Benedictine convent was dissolved in 1810, but remained as the central convent of the closed Silesian nunneries and was run by Ursulines from 1845. For the 150 Protestants from Liebenthal and the surrounding area, Frederick William IV endowed the Protestant church in 1852. Already in 1843 the Ursulines had founded a girls’ school with boarding school. In 1863 a Catholic teachers’ seminary followed. The connection to the railway line Greiffenberg-Löwenberg in 1885 did little to change the low economic importance of the country town.[4]

In 1945, the town of Liebenthal belonged to the administrative district of Löwenberg in the administrative district of Liegnitz in the Prussian province of Lower Silesia of the German Reich

Liebenthal was spared from direct effects of World War II and was occupied by the Red Army only after the German surrender on 8 May 1945. In the summer of 1945, the town was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power and was given the Polish name Miłosna, meaning ” the lovely one”, in reference to the German place name. It was not until 1947 that the place name Lubomierz, which has been retained to this day, came into use.[4] After the expulsion of the German population from Liebenthal by the local Polish administrative authorities, the former number of inhabitants could only slowly be regained by settling new Polish citizens. These came in part from the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union as part of the “westward shift of Poland”. In the 1970s, the town increasingly fell into disrepair, so that the summerhouses on the northeast side of the ring road in front of the parish church were demolished.

Today, high unemployment, which amounted to 29.3% in the powiat in 2006, and emigration, which has, however, been slowed down in recent years, are among the problems of the municipality resulting from its location away from major industry and transport links – rail transport has been discontinued. On the other hand, tourism is becoming increasingly important thanks to the scenic location in front of the Jizera Mountains and the historic townscape, which served as a backdrop for many films and series famous in Poland (especially the series Sami swoi). The Polish Comedy Festival (Ogólnopolski Festiwal Filmów Komediowych) has been held annually since 1992.

Population development

The population of the city according to the respective territorial status (more recent figures excluding urban and rural municipalities):[5]

Year Inhabitants
1845 1.522
1885 1.558
1900 1.649
1910 1.777
1933 1.640
1939 1.665
Year Inhabitants
1969 1.637
1980 1.600
1995 2.080
2000 1.765
2005 1.812
2013 1.987

Politics

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of the town of Lubomierz shows a growing, green-robed bishop on a golden background, with a red book in his right hand and a red crozier in his left.

This representation can already be found in seals of the 15th century, with the bishop standing for St. Maternus, the patron saint of the Benedictine monastery and referring to the centuries-long connection between the town and the monastery

Twinning

On 20 July 2008, a partnership was established with the Saxon town of Wittichenau.

Places of interest

Former Protestant Church

Maternusbrunnen and Leinenweberhaus

Wooden figure in front of the Muzeum Kargula i Pawlaka

Buildings

Market place and town hall

  • The elongated market square (Rynek), which rises to the west, is lined with burgher houses from the 16th to the 19th century – with arcades to the south. In the middle of the ring are two blocks of houses, with the town hall occupying the front of the eastern one. Behind the town hall building there is a small alleyway with a swinging arch and on the corner of the street there is a pillar. The square in front of the town hall (Niederring) is occupied by the Baroque Marian column, lined with four statues of saints, including St. Roch, and a balustrade. The column was donated by the Tanner family to commemorate an epidemic in 1613 that is said to have killed 989 citizens.[3] The Maternusbrunnen (Maternus Fountain ) from 1712, which depicts Bishop Maternus on a winding column, is another Baroque monument between the two ring blocks (upper ring). Behind it stands the Linen Weavers’ House – in essence a Renaissance building of the 16th century (including window frames), which houses the Muzeum Kargula i Pawlaka.
  • The town hall is a simple building with a crippled hipped roof and a high flight of steps, which owes its present appearance to a reconstruction in 1837-39 after the town fire of 1802. Baroque, on the other hand, is the ornamental ridge turret with onion dome.

Parish church St. Maternus and monastery

  • The former monastery church, the Parish Church of St. Maternus (Kościół Wniebowzięcia NMP i św. Maternusa) is the most significant building in the town and one of the most important Baroque buildings in Silesia. Southwest of the church is the former Benedictine monastery.

See St. Maternus (Lubomierz)

Other church buildings

  • The three-nave cemetery church of St. Anne in the Upper Suburb (Górne Przedmieście) was built in 1668 and subsequently rebuilt several times. The interior decoration is Baroque. In the cemetery there is a burial chapel of the poet Christian Jakob Salice-Contessa from 1826.
  • The Holy Cross Church in the Lower Suburb (Dolne Przedmieście), first mentioned in 1666, is said to have been built on the site where the daughter of an alderman found a golden cross.[6] The present neo-Gothic hall with a ridge turret was built after a fire in 1875.
  • The neo-Gothic former Lutheran church dates from 1852, as does the attached Lutheran school and rectory. The building complex now houses the Galeria Za Miedzą.

Museums

  • The protagonists of the most famous of the films shot in Lubomierz, the series Sami swoi, the Kargul and Pawlak families, expelled from the Polish eastern territories and settled in former German territories, were dedicated the Muzeum Kargula i Pawlaka on the Market Square. The wooden figures of the Kargul and Pawlak family fathers flank the entrance and the museum contains, among other things, original props.[7]

Sons and daughters of the city

  • Jochen Hoffbauer (* 1923 Geppersdorf, † 2006 Kassel-Harleshausen), writer
  • Rudolf Müller (* 1931 Schmottseiffen, † 2012 Görlitz), Bishop of Görlitz
  • Günter Renner (* 1939 in Schmottseiffen, † 2005), lawyer, university lecturer and presiding judge at the Hessian Administrative Court of Justice
  • Hieronymus Vietor (Binder, Cooper, Büttner, * c. 1480 Liebenthal, † 1546 Vienna), book printer and publisher in Vienna and Krakow
  • Friedrich Walitza (* 1892 Liebenthal, † 1962 Vienna), lawyer, General Director of the First Austrian Savings Bank, General Council of the Austrian National Bank
  • Joseph Wiesner (* 1913 Liebenthal, † 1975 Lörrach), German classical archaeologist

Community

The town and rural commune of Lubomierz has an area of 130.39 km² and a population of about 6,200. In addition to the main town of the same name, it is divided into the following 13 districts:

  • Chmieleń (Langwasser)
  • Golejów (Little Roehrsdorf)
  • Janice (Johnsdorf)
  • Maciejowiec (Matzdorf)
  • Milęcice (Geppersdorf)
  • Oleszna Podgórska (Krummöls)
  • Pasiecznik (Spiller)
  • Pławna Dolna (Street houses)
  • Pławna Górna (Schmottseiffen)
  • Pokrzywnik (Riemendorf)
  • Popielówek (Hennersdorf)
  • Radoniów (Ottendorf)
  • Wojciechów (Ullersdorf-Liebenthal)

Literature

  • Dehio-Handbuch der Kunstdenkmäler in Polen: Schlesien. Deutscher Kunstverlag Munich, Berlin 2005. ISBN 3-422-03109-X
  • Zbigniew Dygdałowicz, Eginbert Faßnacht: Lubomierz – Kronika z wieży ratusza. Liebenthal – The Chronicle from the Town Hall Tower. Polish and German, translation: Kamil Basiński. AD REM, Jelenia Góra 2014. ISBN 978-83-64313-35-6

Web links

Commons: Lubomierz– Collection of images, videos and audio files

Liebenthal. In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 4.Auflage. Vol. 10, Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig/Vienna 1885-1892, p. 772.

Individual references

  1. a b Population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019.Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), retrieved 24 December 2019.
  2. a b Cf. Johann Georg Knie: Alphabetisch-statistisch-topographische Uebersicht der Dörfer, Flecken, Städte und andern Orte der Königl. Province of Silesia. Breslau 1845(Digitalisat)
  3. a b c d Cf. karkonosze.info.pl; retrieved on 29 March 2008
  4. a b Cf. sudety.it(Memento of the Originals of 10 May 2006 in the Internet Archive) Info:The archive linkwas inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check original and archive link according to instructions and then remove this note.@1@2Template:Webachiv/IABot/www.sudety.it; retrieved 29 March 2008

  5. Sources of population figures:

    1845: [1] – 1885 [2] – 1900: [3]- 1933, 1939: Promotion Michael Rademacher: Landkreis Löwenberg (pol. Lwówek Slaski)(Memento of 28 May 2008 in the Internet Archive) – 1910: [4] – 1969: Heinz Rudolf Fritsche: Schlesien Wegweiser. Bechtermünz Verlag, Augsburg 1996 – 1980: Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN – 1995, 2000, 2005: Link(M emento of 16 February 2008 in the Internet Archive)

  6. Cf. lubomierz.legnica.opoka.org.pl; retrieved. on 29 March 2008
  7. Muzeum Kargula i Pawlaka(Memento of 13 June 2017 in the Internet Archive)