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Himmelpforten Monastery (Oste)

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Himmelpforten Monastery in the Osteland was a monastery first of Cistercian nuns, from the 16th century of Lutheran conventual nuns, in Himmelpforten, district of Stade, in Lower Saxony, from about 1250 to 1629. It should not be confused with the Himmelpforten (Ense) monastery in North Rhine-Westphalia, Himmelspforten monastery in Würzburg, Himmelpforten monastery (Harz), nor with Himmelpfort monastery in Brandenburg. “Himmelspforte” was also the name of the Cistercian abbey of Schweinheim.

History

The women’s convent, whose Latin name was Porta Coeli, was founded in the mid-13th century on the Westerberg near the Stiftbrem hamlet of Rahden near Lamstedt, a site later still marked by the no longer extant St. Andrew’s Chapel.[1] The convent was modelled on the monastery of Uetersen, from which it had probably been settled. Uetersen was a foundation from 1234 by Heinrich II of Barmstede, father-in-law of Adelheid of Haseldorf.

Since the Cistercian Order greatly restricted the admission of the growing number of women’s convents who lived according to the rules of the order, and since neither the admission of the monastery into the order nor the accompanying appointment of responsible abbatial fathers have survived, Himmelpforten Monastery was probably never officially part of the order.[2]

In 1244 and 1245, the General Chapter of the Cistercian Order had determined that only those convents would be admitted as nunneries whose competent cathedral chapter and competent bishop exiled the temporalities and spirituals of the community to be admitted from their control.[3] And it was precisely such a far-reaching surrender of their sovereignty that Bremen’s cathedral chapter and prince-archbishop urgently wished to avoid.

The principal benefactors of the monastery, members of the Brobergen family (also Broc[k]bergen, extinct 1745[4]), intended to establish it as a monastery of their own.[5] The Brobergens from Brobergen, who held allodial possessions in the area, wanted the monastery to be their own power base out of direct control of the prince-archbishop’s sovereign,[6][7] in which they agreed with their relatives, the ministerial Friedrich the Elder of Haseldorf, first mentioned around 1190, and the cleric Friedrich the Younger of Haseldorf.[8] In 1250, the year of his entry into the clergy, the heirless Friedrich the Younger donated allodial possessions of his family on the Lamstedt Geest and in the Ostemarschen to the monastery,[9] his family became extinct in the 1280s.[10]

However, the Brobergens and Haseldorfs were ultimately unable to prevail with their intention.[10] In this context, it played a role that the archbishopric of Bremen-Hamburg maintained the metropolitan claim of the merged archdiocese of Hamburg over the new Baltic dioceses. Their bishops, like Frederick the Younger of Haseldorf as head pastor of a diocese of Karelia to be founded from 1255, often came from the archdiocese of Bremen and strove for a Baltic ecclesiastical province, with which they succeeded in 1253/1255 with Riga’s elevation to an archbishopric, to which the bishopric of Dorpat was also subject as a suffragan, which Frederick the Younger actually received in 1268.

Frederick the Younger bequeathed his personal inheritance to the monastery of Porta Coeli, where it was shipped.[11] Prince Wizlaw II of Rügen had it seized and retained in Stralsund in 1290.[11] The Himmelpforten abbess claimed it, as did Truchsess Markwart, second husband or son of Adelheid of Barmstede, sister of Frederick the Younger. The abbess’s declaration of renunciation of 17 March 1291 bears the oldest preserved version of the monastery seal,[11] which the municipality of Himmelpforten has officially used as its coat of arms since 1955.[12]

The cathedral chapter in Bremen, which exercised secular rule in the archdiocese, led by the cathedral provost Gerhard zur Lippe (c. 1240-1259), protégé of his great-uncle Prince-Archbishop Gerhard II zur Lippe, and the latter’s nephew and coadjutor Simon zur Lippe, who acted as his deputy from 1251, struggled to bring all rival lords in the archdiocese under sovereign control.[6] Thus they subordinated the monastery and its temporalities to the rule of the foundation.[7]

This subordination of the monastery to sovereign control manifested itself in the transfer of its seat to Eulsete (today Himmelpforten), a place – in Bernd Ulrich Hucker’s view – in a strategic position on the edge of Kehdingen,[13] from where one could observe and hoped to supervise the marshland farmers administering themselves there to a large extent, whose inner autonomy chapter and prince archbishop perceived as rivalling to the sovereignty.[6] Adolf E. Hofmeister counters Hucker that at that time it was hardly foreseeable how the Kehdinger Moor between Himmelpforten and the Kehdinger settlement core in the marsh would ever be passable for sovereign operations,[14] to advance the subjugation of the republic-forming free peasants in the archdiocese, like that of the Stedingers in the crusade by Prince-Archbishop Gerhard II.[10]

Relocation and sovereign subordination of the monastery and its temporalities is documented in a deed of the cathedral chapter. The deed of 1 May 1255 authorized Albertus, the provost of the monastery, to administer its possessions in view of their allodial status without prince-archbishop’s feudal reservation,[10] notes the donation of the neighbouring village of Großenwörden to the monastery by Frederick the Younger of Haseldorf,[10] who then entered the Hamburg chapter as a canon,[15] which had been subordinate to the Bremen chapter since the merger of the dioceses of Hamburg and Bremen. However, the document also made it clear that the monastery held all possessions, regardless of which party donated them, solely by virtue of the protection of the cathedral chapter, excluding any exemption from the foundation’s sovereignty.[15]

Eulsete (Low German: Eylsede, etymologically interpreted as the [residential] seat of an Eylos/Eilhard) in the course of time took on the Low German translation of the Latin monastery name, Klooster to der Himilporten or younger tor Hemmelporten, which in High German phonation later became official.[16]

Since only a few documents issued by the convent have survived, it is hardly possible to make any definite statements. No nuns or conventuals from the commoner class have survived, but members of the following families are attested: Brobergen, von der Brock, von Campe, von der Decken, Drew(e)s, von Gruben, von Hadeln, Haken, von der Hude, von Issendorff, von der Kuhla, von der Lieth, Marschalck, Plate, von Reimershausen, Rönne, Voss, and von Weyhe.[17]

In 1541, the ruling prince archbishop of Bremen, Christoph der Verschwender, deprived the nunnery of its income from payments and duties for three years in order to satisfy a creditor, his chancellery secretary Steffen vom Stein.[18] While Christoph the Pro digal, who was heavily in debt, squandered Abbey Bremen’s goods and income, large parts of the Abbey’s population converted to the Reformation. The monastery estates at times obtained his removal from office.

The nuns or novices, most of whom came from noble and ministerial families of Abbey Bremen, switched with their families to the Augsburg Confession, transforming the convent into a Lutheran Fräulein convent.[19] In 1550/1555, the provost of the convent appointed the first Lutheran pastor to one of the churches to be filled under the convent’s ius nominandi, namely St. Peter’s Church in Horst (Oste).[20] Since it was the right of the nuns to choose their own provost, it is assumed that this nomination was not made against their will, i.e. that the majority of them had changed their denomination.[5]

Former convent district around the church, with (1) Amtshaus, (2) Amtsschreiberhaus, (3) Pastorat, (4) Küsterei, (5) Wassermühle, (6) Nonnenkirchhof, and (7) Gemeindekirchhof (buildings from 1788 overlay present structures)

In 1556, the provost appointed the first Lutheran pastor to the convent church of Himmelpforten, that is, to the church of the nuns themselves.[5] The convent remained as a convent for its inhabitants, the conventuals, because their relatives declared: “… noble […] convents … [wehren] von den … Vorfahren dazu vornemblich gewidtmet, gestiftet und mit gütern dotiret […], damit ihre nach Kommen …, die zu heirhen keine Lust hatten oder dazu unbequem wehren, darin aufgenommen und erhalten könnten …”.[21]

After the ligist conquest and occupation of the archdiocese of Bremen 1626-1628 in the course of the Thirty Years’ War, Jacob Brummer and Wilhelm Schröder, subdelegates of the imperial restitution commission, assembled on 23.November/ December 3, 1629J.K./G.K.the conventuals under Prioress Gerdruth von Campe in the choir of the monastery church and announced to them that the monastery Himmelpforten with all its possessions was confiscated in favour of the Jesuits.[22] The valuable medieval liturgical equipment of the monastery was appropriated by Father Matthias Kalkhoven for his order in 1629 and disappeared with him and the other Jesuits out of the country in 1632.[22][23]

Any conventual who converted to Catholicism by Christmas was promised a continuation of lifelong provision; all others would be homeless and destitute after Easter 1630.[24] Since none of the conventuals converted, they were all – after Provost Franz Marschalck had intervened for them several times in vain with reference to the goods they had brought with them – expelled from the convent on 27 JulyJ.K./ 6 AugustG.K. 1630 without any regulation of their further provision.[25] With it the convent was dissolved, the monastery’s inhabitants had to pay homage to the Societas Jesu as their new landlord three days later.[25]

After the liberation of the archdiocese of Bremen in 1632 by the forces of Stiftbremische, Stadtbremische and Swedes, the prince-bishop administrator Johann Friedrich, the Bremen cathedral chapter and the collegiate estates again took over the rule of the archdiocese. Johann Friedrich demanded to confiscate all monastery properties to finance the continued war in favor of the monastery treasury, but on May 28, 1633J.K. the Estates in Basdahl only approved the use of monastery revenues for the war until its end.[23] Prioress Campe and some conventuals moved back into the convent buildings in 1634.

After the Archdiocese of Bremen and the High Diocese of Verden had been awarded to Sweden in 1647, Queen Christina of Sweden enfeoffed many high-ranking veterans with fiefs in the united Bremen-Verden, so also with the possessions of Himmelpforten Monastery.[26] The feoffed Gustaf Adolph Lewenhaupt found on May 21, 1650J.K.the twelve conventuals, but not the 14 aspirants.[27] Thus the convent was finally dissolved. On 30 July 1651J.K. Lewenhaupt was admitted to the fief.[26] The last three conventuals left the conventual buildings in 1676, after Stiftmünster troops had encamped in Himmelpforten for eleven weeks during the Bremen-Verden campaign and lived out of the country.[28]

The northern choir wall of St. Mary’s Church is the last remaining wall of the monastery

The former monastery church was demolished in 1737 except for a section of masonry on the northern chancel, which was integrated in 1738 into the narrower and only about half as long new building of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. Mary that exists today.[29][30] The once larger window openings in the preserved wall segment from the monastery period have been reduced in size in order to insert windows of the smaller format of the new building on the entire structure in 1738.[31] There are no remains of the monastery buildings.

Himmelpforten Office

The patrimonial court district of the monastery included the parishes of Großenwörden, Himmelpforten and Horst an der Oste. This district essentially remained under the name Amt Himmelpforten.[32] The last clerk of the monastery was the first administrator of the office from 1658 to 1663. His successors bore the official title Amtmann until 1867, then Amtshauptmann until 1885.[33]

In 1712, the Börde Oldendorf was incorporated into the Amt Himmelpforten. On 1 September 1810, the short-lived Westphalia reorganized the Amt into the canton of Stade and Himmelpforten,[34] but already on 1 January 1811, during the annexation to France, the canton Himmel pforten was established.[35][36] In 1813 the state of 1809 was restored. When the Hanoverian province Bremen-Verden was transformed into the Landdrostei Stade in 1823, the office remained. In 1850 the area of the court Hechthausen came to the office Himmelpforten.[37]

In the course of the Hanoverian Great Judicial Reform, the Amt boundaries were revised on 1 October 1852 and Großenwörden, Neuland an der Oste and Neulandermoor moved to the Amt Osten.[38] The judicial competences of Himmelpforten were transferred to the new district court Himmelpforten in the course of the separation of administration and justice. On June 22, 1859, the Amt Himmelpforten ceded all areas west of the Oste (especially the former court Hechthausen) to the Amt Osten and got the Amt Stade in addition. In 1885 the Amt Himmelpforten, with the exception of Elm an der Oste (which came to the Kreis Bremervörde), merged with the city of Stade and the Amt Harsefeld to the new Kreis Stade.[39] Today’s Samtgemeinde Oldendorf-Himmelpforten includes large parts of the former Amt Himmelpforten with the territorial status between 1712 and 1859.

Literature

  • Georg von Issendorff: Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt. Krause, Stade 1979 (first 1911).
  • Gereon Christoph Maria Becking: Zisterzienserklöster in Europa, Kartensammlung. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-931836-44-4, p. 44 B.
  • Bernard Peugniez: Guide Routier de l’Europe Cistercienne. Editions du Signe, Strasbourg 2012, p. 464.
  • Peter Pfister: Klosterführer aller Zisterzienserklöster im deutschsprachigen Raum. 2. Auflage, Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 1998, p. 256.

Web links

Individual references

  1. Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 5. no ISBN.
  2. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 33. No ISBN.
  3. Gerd Ahlers, Female Cistercianism in the Middle Ages and its Monasteries in Lower Saxony, Berlin: Lukas-Verlag, 2002, (=Studies on the History, Art and Culture of the Cistercians; vol. 13), partly at the same time Berlin, Freie Univ., Diss., 1997, p. 49. ISBN 3-931836-47-9.
  4. Peter von Kobbe, Geschichte und Landesbeschreibung der Herzogthümer Bremen und Verden: 2 vols, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Rupprecht, 1824, vol. 1: p. 300. no ISBN.
  5. a b c Matthias Nistal, “The Time of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation and the Beginnings of the Thirty Years’ War (1511-1632)”, in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 Bde, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I ‘Pre- and Early History’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5), vol.II ‘Middle Ages (incl. art history)’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2), vol.III ‘Modern Times’ (2008; ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vols. 7-9), vol. III: pp. 1-158, here p. 78. ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9.
  6. a b c Konrad Elmshäuser, “Die Erzbischöfe als Landesherren”, in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I ‘Pre- and Early History’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5), vol.II ‘Middle Ages (incl. art history)’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2), vol.III ‘Modern Times’ (2008; ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vols. 7-9), vol. II: pp. 159-194, here p. 165. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  7. a b Adolf E. Hofmeister, “Adel, Bauern und Stände”, in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I ‘Pre- and Early History’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5), vol.II ‘Middle Ages (incl. art history)’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2), vol.III ‘Modern Times’ (2008; ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vols. 7-9), vol. II: pp. 195-240, here p. 195. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  8. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 27. No ISBN.
  9. Frederick the Younger donated further family estates to other monasteries in the archdiocese, such as the monastery of St. Mary in Stade, the monastery of Zeven, the archabbey of Harsefeld. Cf. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 27. No ISBN.
  10. a b c d e Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 28. no ISBN.
  11. a b c Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 8. no ISBN.
  12. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 5. No ISBN.
  13. Bernd Ulrich Hucker, “Freiheit und Herrschaft bei den Kehdingern”, in: Stader Jahrbuch, N.F. 61 (2001/2002), pp. 101-108, here pp. 104f.
  14. Adolf E. Hofmeister, Besiedlung und Verfassung der Stader Elbmarschen im Mittelalter: 2 Tle., Hildesheim: Lax, 1979-1981, (=Publications of the Institute for Historical Research of the University of Göttingen; vols. 12 and 14), Part II: ‘Die Hollerkolonisation und die Landesgemeinden Land Kehdingen und Altes Land’ (1981), p. 344. ISBN 3-7848-3644-5.
  15. a b Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 6. no ISBN.
  16. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 23. no ISBN.
  17. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 36. No ISBN.
  18. Karl Schleif, Regierung und Verwaltung des Erzstifts Bremen, Hamburg: ohne Verlag, 1972, (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; Bd. 1), p. 234, zugl. Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1968. no ISBN.
  19. Heinz-Joachim Schulze, ‘Himmelpforten’ (entry), in: Germania Benedictina: 12 vols, vol. XII: ‘Norddeutschland: Die Männer- und Frauenklöster der Zisterzienser in Niedersachsen, Schleswig-Holstein und Hamburg’ (1994), Ulrich Faust (compil.), pp. 148-167, here p. 154.
  20. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 37. No ISBN.
  21. Petition of the Bremen knighthood to the Brem-Verden General Government for compensation of the entitlements of prospective conventuals after imperial commissioners had dissolved the convent in 1629. Here quoted from Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 43. No ISBN.
  22. a b Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 33. no ISBN.
  23. a b Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 38. No ISBN.
  24. Matthias Nistal, “The Time of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation and the Beginnings of the Thirty Years’ War (1511-1632)”, in: History of the Land between Elbe and Weser: 3 vols, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I ‘Pre- and Early History’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5), vol.II ‘Middle Ages (incl. art history)’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2), vol.III ‘Modern Times’ (2008; ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; Vol. 7-9), Vol. III: pp. 1-158, here p. 123. ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9.
  25. a b Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 37. no ISBN.
  26. a b Matthias Nistal, “Die Zeit der Reformation und der Gegenreformation und die Anfänge des Dreißigjährigen Krieges (1511-1632)”, in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 Bde, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I ‘Pre- and Early History’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5), vol.II ‘Middle Ages (incl. art history)’ (1995; ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2), vol.III ‘Modern Times’ (2008; ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; vols. 7-9), vol. III: pp. 1-158, here p. 79. ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9.
  27. Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 42. no ISBN.
  28. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 58. No ISBN.
  29. Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 68. No ISBN.
  30. Landkreis Stade / Archäologische Denkmalpflege sowie Heimat- und Schulmuseum Himmelpforten, Zeugen der Geschichte in Himmelpforten. Ein Spaziergang durch die Vergangenheit der Gemeinde, Heimat- und Schulmuseum Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Seidel, 2006, section 2.
  31. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (ed.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 139. No ISBN.
  32. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (Herausg.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 57. No ISBN.
  33. Georg von Issendorff, Kloster und Amt Himmelpforten. Nach Akten und Urkunden dargestellt, reprint of the edition of the “Stader Archiv”, 1911/1913, expanded by Clemens Förster, Stade and Buxtehude: Krause, 1979, p. 45. No ISBN.
  34. Klaus Isensee, Die Region Stade in westfälisch-französischer Zeit 1810-1813: Studien zum napoleonischen Herrschaftssystem unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Stadt Stade und des Fleckens Harsefeld, Stade: Stader Geschichts- und Heimatverein, 2003, zugl.: Hannover, Univ., Diss., 1991, (=Einzelschriften des Stader Geschichts- und Heimatvereins; Bd. 33), p. 77. No ISBN.
  35. Klaus Isensee, Die Region Stade in westfälisch-französischer Zeit 1810-1813: Studien zum napoleonischen Herrschaftssystem unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Stadt Stade und des Fleckens Harsefeld, Stade: Stader Geschichts- und Heimatverein, 2003, zugl.: Hannover, Univ., Diss., 1991, (=Einzelschriften des Stader Geschichts- und Heimatvereins; Bd. 33), p. 100. No ISBN.
  36. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (Herausg.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 59. No ISBN.
  37. Christian Ebhardt, Laws, Ordinances and Tenders for the Kingdom of Hanover: 1846-1850, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1851, p. 172.
  38. Cf. “Verordnung, die Bildung der Amtsgerichte und unteren Verwaltungsbehörden betreffend vom 7. August 1852”, in: Gesetz-Sammlung für das Königreich Hannover, 1852, pp. 185-236, here p . 221.
  39. Silvia Schulz-Hauschildt, Himmelpforten – Eine Chronik, Gemeinde Himmelpforten (Herausg.), Stade: Hansa-Druck Stelzer, 1990, p. 61. No ISBN.

Coordinates 53° 36′ 52.1″ N, 9° 18′ 16.8″ O