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Heinkel HeS 1

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The Heinkel HeS 1, short for Heinkel Jet Engine 1, was a jet engine designed by Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in Germany before World War II. It was not used in flight. Based on this engine, the Heinkel HeS 3 engine was later developed, with which the first flight exclusively with a jet engine was completed.

Prehistory / Garage model

Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain

The idea man behind the engine was Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain, who studied aerodynamics and physics in Göttingen, Rostock and Berlin from 1930, but was also interested in aviation as a glider pilot. In 1935 he received his doctorate from the 1st Institute of Physics at the Georg-August University in Göttingen under his doctoral supervisor Robert Wichard Pohl. He and the aerodynamicist Prof. Ludwig Prandtl, who taught at the same university, became his patrons.[1]

Already during his work as a doctoral student, starting in 1933, he developed, based on the structure and principle of action of a Nernst turbine[2][3], he developed ideas for turbojet engines, which he supported with calculations. To protect his ideas and work, a patent was applied for in 1935. The patent was granted in 1937 under the title Process and Apparatus for the Production of Air Flows for the Propulsion of Aircraft, secretly under the number 317/18[4] granted.[5] The engine described therein consisted of a two-stage compressor with one axial and one radial stage[Note 1]an annular combustion chamber with 8 burners arranged in circumferential direction and a radial turbine.[6][7] It is unclear whether von Ohain was already aware of Frank Whittle’s patent from 1930 with a comparable engine design. Personally, von Ohain affirmed that he only learned of this in 1937, two years after the patent was filed.[8]

In 1935, von Ohain and his auto mechanic Max Hahn built what later became known as the Garage Model, a demonstration engine to explore the concept of turbojet engines. The costs of 1000 Reichsmark were partly covered by his grandmother.[1] Tests were carried out in the backyard of the Institute of Physics so that its measuring equipment could be used.[9] During these tests problems with the combustion occurred, so that the engine did not run by itself. The gasoline chosen as fuel burned in the turbine and the thrust nozzle instead of in the combustion chamber. This in turn caused an electric motor, which was supposed to keep the engine running at 8000 rpm, to overheat.[6]

Development of the HeS 1 at Heinkel

Pohl recognized the potential of the concept and advised an industrial partner. Von Ohain distrusted traditional engine manufacturers and favored Heinkel, an aircraft manufacturer whose willingness to take development risks he knew.[9] Pohl established contact with Ernst Heinkel in February 1936. The latter was interested and organised a meeting with his engineers at which von Ohain was to present his work. Even though the garage model was not a success, the potential was recognized and von Ohain was hired in April 1936, later also Max Hahn.

Initially, work continued on the garage model and the cause of the combustion problems was found out. The air mass flow between the compressor and the turbine did not work as intended and there were backflows into the compressor. It was decided to build a new demonstrator and run it on hydrogen.[6]

HeS 1

The development of the HeS 1 took place under secrecy in the premises of the Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in Rostock-Marienehe. The work was decisively supported by the Heinkel engineer Wilhelm Gundermann together with further 6 to 8 designers and calculation engineers as well as 6 to 8 mechanics under the leadership of Max Hahn.[10]

The HeS 1 was more advanced than the garage model. Instead of an almost pure sheet metal construction (also that of the compressor and the combustion chamber), which was favored by Hahn, the HeS 1 was increasingly constructed from cast and milled parts but also more complex sheet metal bending parts. The combustion chamber was positioned outside the compressor contour and extended to allow better burnout. The principle of a two-stage compressor with one axial and one radial stage as well as a single-stage radial turbine was still used. However, both assemblies were positioned separately, i.e. at a greater distance from each other. This should improve the flow behavior in the entire engine.[11]

Tests in March 1937 showed that the engine ran very well. Only the combustion caused problems, because the hydrogen burned the metal, which was not acceptable for flight operation. Under pressure from Ernst Heinkel, a solution was found by September 1937, in which – now liquid fuel again – was better atomized in the combustion chamber.[11] Parallel to the work on the HeS 1, the development of an HeS 2 and finally that of the Heinkel HeS 3 was started, with which the first flight exclusively with a jet engine was completed in September 1939.

Technical data

Data Heinkel HeS 1
Type Turbojet
Startup thrust 136 kp (1.33 kN) (1.1 kN after [9])
Speed 10000/min
Rotor diameter 0,61 m
Diameter complete 0,905 m
Length 0,9 m
Compressor 2 stages (1× axial, 1× radial)
Turbine 1 radial stage
Note Data according to[11]

Literature

  • Antony Kay: German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930-1945. Airlife Publishing Ltd, Shrewsbury 2002, ISBN 1-84037-294-X (English).
  • Willy J.G. Bräunling: Aircraft Engines. Fundamentals, aero-thermodynamics, ideal and real cyclic processes, thermal turbomachinery, components, emissions and systems. 3. Edition. Springer, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-76368-0.
  • Cyrus B. Meher-Homji, Eric Prisell: Pioneering Turbojet Developments of Dr. Hans Von Ohain-From the HeS 1 to the HeS 011. In Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Vol. 122, No. 2. ASME, 2000, pp. 191-201 , doi:10.1115/1.483194 [English, asme.org [PDF; 458 kB; accessed May 7, 2019]).

Web links

Commons: Heinkel HeS 1– Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Portal: Aviation– Overview of Wikipedia content on aviation

Individual references

  1. a b The jet age began in Göttingen: 100th birthday of Hans von Ohain.In: dlr.de. 9 December 2011, retrieved 28 April 2019.
  2. Sir Frank Whittle: Gas Turbine Aero-Thermodynamics. With Special Reference to Aircraft Propulsion. 1. Edition. Pergamon Press Ltd, Oxford 1981, ISBN 0-08-026719-X, p. 103 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed May 12, 2019]).
  3. Aurel Stodola: Steam and gas turbines. With an appendix on the prospects of heat engines. 6. Edition. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 1924, ISBN 978-3-642-50544-7, pp. 1010-1011, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-50854-7[limited preview in Google search] [accessed 12 May 2019]).
  4. Claire Soares: Gas Turbines: A Handbook of Air, Land and Sea Applications. 2. Edition. Elsevier, 2014, ISBN 978-0-12-410461-7, p. 42 ( English, limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed 28 April 2019]).
  5. Willy J.G. Bräunling: Aircraft Engines. Fundamentals, aero-thermodynamics, ideal and real cycle processes, thermal turbomachinery, components, emissions and systems. 3. Edition. Springer, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-76368-0, p. 13.
  6. a b c Antony Kay: German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930-1945. Airlife Publishing Ltd, Shrewsbury 2002, ISBN 1-84037-294-X, p. 18 ( English).
  7. Cyrus B. Meher-Homji: The Historical Evolution of Turbomachinery. In: Proceedings of the 29th Turbomachinery Symposium. Housten 2000, pp. 281-322 (English, tamu.edu [PDF; 2.6 MB]).
  8. Willy J.G. Bräunling: Aircraft Engines. Fundamentals, aero-thermodynamics, ideal and real cycle processes, thermal turbomachinery, components, emissions and systems. 3. Edition. Springer, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-76368-0, p. 14.
  9. a b c Cyrus B. Meher-Homji, Eric Prisell: Pioneering Turbojet Developments of Dr. Hans Von Ohain-From the HeS 1 to the HeS 011. In Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Vol. 122, No. 2. ASME, 2000, pp. 191-201 , doi:10.1115/1.483194 (English, asme.org [PDF; 458 kB]).
  10. Antony Kay: German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930-1945. Airlife Publishing Ltd, Shrewsbury 2002, ISBN 1-84037-294-X, p. 19 ( English).
  11. a b c Antony Kay: German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930-1945. Airlife Publishing Ltd, Shrewsbury 2002, ISBN 1-84037-294-X, p. 20 ( English).

Notes

  1. The sources contradict each other here: according to literature Bräunling (p. 13), the compressor consisted of only one radial stage, but according to literature Kay (p. 18) and Meher-Homji, it consisted of one axial and one subsequent radial stage.