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Grodziszcze (Świdnica)

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Grodziszcze
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Grodziszcze (Polen)
Grodziszcze (50° 47′ 56″ N, 16° 33′ 25″O)
Grodziszcze
Basic data
State: Poland
Voivodeship: Lower Silesia
Powiat: Świdnica
Gmina: Świdnica
Geographical Location: 50° 48′ N, 16° 33′ OCoordinates 50° 47′ 56″ N, 16° 33′ 25″ O
Residents: 893
Zip code: 58-112
Telephone area code: (+48) (+48)74
License plate: DSW
Economy and transport
Street: Świdnica-Wrocław
Nearest int. airport: Wroclaw

Church of St. Anna in Grodziszcze

Gräditz Castle

Historic Rectory

Grodziszcze (German Gräditz, until 1930 Königlich-Gräditz) is a village in the rural district of Świdnica(Schweidnitz) in the powiat of Świdnicki in Lower Silesia Voivodeship in Poland.

Location

It lies 11 km south-west of the regional capitalŚwidnica and 50 km south-west of the regional capital Wroc³aw.

History

In 1193, the place is first mentioned in documents as Grodec in possession of the Wroclaw Sandstift. The place name is derived from the Old Slavic word gradu for fort.[1] This is also indicated by the remains of a circular rampart on a hill near Gräditz behind the Peile. During excavations, urn sherds and bone remains were discovered there.[2] Gräditz was located in the duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer. After the death of Duke Bolko II of Schweidnitz, the area fell under hereditary law to the Crown of Bohemia. In 1288 Duke Heinrich IV of Breslau donated two benefices for the cathedral chapter Heilig-Kreuz. Since then the capital part was called Königlich-Gräditz.

Ober-Gräditz belonged to the Lords of Seidlitz since 1470; Melchior von Gellhorn since 1607; Heinrich von Peterswalde in 1614; Friedrich von Kuhl in 1620; the Lords of Dresky since 1720. Nieder-Gräditz was owned by a Frau von Tschirnhaus since 1655; Adolph von Seidlitz in 1694; Johann Friedrich von Lamprecht, the imperial official assessor at Jauer, in 1718; Anna Kunigunda von Dresky, née Baroness von Erben, in 1733; Ernst Heinrich von Dresky in 1742; Otto Gottfried von Lieres und Wilkau in 1755.[3]

The parish church of St. Anne in Königlich-Gräditz is documented since 1259.[4] It became Protestant during the Reformation and was returned to the Catholics after 1653. The majority Protestant inhabitants initially turned to the Friedenskirche (Peace Church) outside Schweidnitz.[5] In 1742 King Frederick II allowed the Protestant communities of Gräditz, Faulbrück, Kreisau and Wierischau in the Principality of Schweidnitz to build a new house of prayer in Ober-Gräditz, with its own Protestant preacher and schoolmaster.

After the First Silesian War, Gräditz fell to Prussia in 1741/42 along with most of Silesia. The old administrative structures were dissolved and Gräditz was incorporated into the district of Schweidnitz, with which it remained connected until 1945. In 1785 the capital part of Gräditz contained a Catholic church, a parsonage, a schoolhouse, 26 farmers, six gardeners, 68 cottagers and 673 inhabitants. Ober-Gräditz contained a Protestant church, a schoolhouse, a farmstead, nine gardeners, twelve cottagers, a water mill, and 117 inhabitants. Nieder-Gräditz contained one outwork, eleven gardeners and 70 gardeners. The colony of Gräditz had 30 houses and 72 inhabitants in 1785.

In 1813, during the Napoleonic War of Liberation, the headquarters of the Prussian-Russian coalition army was located in Gräditz. During this time, the Prussian King Frederick William III lived in the vicarage, the Russian Tsar Alexander I in the castle, and the Russian Grand Duke Constantine in the Catholic vicarage. In 1874 the Lutheran church of Ober-Gräditz received a brick tower.[6] The bell cast from French guns was a gift from Kaiser Wilhelm to Count von Moltke.[7]

In 1874, 1755 mostly Protestant inhabitants lived in Gräditz, divided into Königlich- or Kapital-Gräditz, Ober-, Kolonie-, as well as Unter-Gräditz.[8] Gräditz formed its own district. In 1895 Königlich-Gräditz had 157 inhabited houses, a bakery, a brewery, two schoolhouses and 1353 inhabitants, 763 Protestants and 590 Catholics.

On 30 September 1928, Nieder-Gräditz was incorporated into Kreisau. In 1939, Gräditz contained 334 households with 1,146 inhabitants.[9] Until 1945, a Jewish forced labor camp was located in Gräditz. It existed since 1941, was closed at the beginning of November 1943, and briefly reopened from 1944 to 1945.[10] Another camp was located in Faulbrück.[11]

As a result of World War II, Gräditz, along with most of Silesia, fell to Poland in 1945. It was subsequently renamed Grodziszcze by the Polish administration. The German inhabitants were expelled, as far as they had not fled before. Some of the newly settled inhabitants came from eastern Poland, which had fallen to the Soviet Union. After 1945 the Lutheran church was demolished, only an outbuilding and relics of the border wall remained. The former Lutheran cemetery outside the village now serves as a parish cemetery.[12]

Places of interest

  • St. Anne’s Catholic Church, first documented in 1259, rebuilt in the 16th century.[13]
  • Gräditz Castle, essentially a late Baroque building from the middle of the 18th century, renovated at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1813 Tsar Alexander I stayed at the castle.[14]

See also

  • Grodziec Mały

Web links

Commons: Grodziszcze, powiat świdnicki– Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual references

  1. Johann G. Knie: Alphabetisch-statistisch-topograph. Übersicht der Dörfer, Flecken, … der königl. Preußischen Provinz Schlesien (etc.) 2nd, verm. ed. Graß, 1845(google.de [retrieved 3 December 2020]).
  2. Beiträge zur Siedlungskunde im ehemaligen Fürstentum Schweidnitz. E. Wohlfarth, 1907(google.de [retrieved 27 November 2020]).
  3. Friedrich Albert Zimmermann: Beiträge zur Beschreibung von Schlesien: Fünfter Band. bey Johann Ernst Tramp, 1785(google.de [accessed 27 November 2020]).
  4. Forschungen und Quellen zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte Ostdeutschlands. Böhlau Verlag, 1966(google.de [accessed 27 November 2020]).
  5. J. Berg: Die Geschichte der schwersten Prüfungszeit der evangelischen Kirche Schlesiens und der Oberlausitz d.i. der Zeit von Einführung der Reformation bis zur Besitznahme Schlesiens durch König Friedrich den Großen: ein Beitr. zur Erklärung der gegenwärtigen äussern Zustände derselben u. zur Darlegung ihrer Rechte u. Ansprüche ... Selbstverl. d. Verf., 1857(google.de [retrieved 27 November 2020]).
  6. Association for Silesian Church History: yearbook for Silesian church history. Verlag “Unser Weg.”, 1983(google.de [retrieved 27 November 2020]).
  7. The district of Schweidnitz : according to its physical, statistical and topographical conditions : a contribution to the advancement of local history for school and home – Silesian Digital Library.Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  8. Regierungsbezirk Breslau: Amts-Blatt der Regierung in Breslau: 1874. Amtsblattstelle, 1874(google.de [accessed 27 November 2020]).
  9. Gräditz (district of Schweidnitz) – GenWiki.Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  10. Gräditz (Grodziszcze) (men’s camp).Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  11. Georg Tessin: Formations and troops of the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS in the Second World War 1939 – 1945 : directory of peace garrisons 1932 – 1939 and stationings in the war 1939 – 1945 / edited by Christian Zweng. Military districts XVII, XVIII, XX, XXI and occupied territories east and southeast. Vol. 16. part 3. Biblio-Verlag, 1997, ISBN 978-3-7648-0941-6(google.de [accessed 27 November 2020]).
  12. Oficjalna strona Urzędu Gminy w Świdnicy – Grodziszcze – historia wsi.Retrieved 27 November 2020 (Polish).
  13. Hans Lutsch: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Reg.-Bezirks Breslau. W. G. Korn, 1887(google.de [retrieved 27 November 2020]).
  14. Association for Silesian Church History: yearbook for Silesian church history. Verlag “Unser Weg.”, 1983(google.de [retrieved 27 November 2020]).