German Freedom Party (1937)
The German Freedom Party was an opposition party founded in early 1937 in exile in Paris against the rule of Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP.
The DFP was founded in Paris in 1937 by Otto Klepper and Carl Spiecker, who had previously been active in parliamentary affairs in the Centre Party. On 17 February 1937, the first leaflet signed by the “Reichsleitung der Deutschen Freiheitspartei” was published in a Paris daily. Although founded in exile, the group saw itself as an inner-German resistance and rejected any reference to emigration. The DFP was a loose association of bourgeois-democratic forces consisting of relatively few exiles. The group attempted to create the appearance of a much larger opposition through strict secrecy and anonymity, and to this end issued the Deutsche Freiheitsbriefe (German Freedom Letters ) to strengthen resistance to National Socialism. The stated goal was to end the rule of the NSDAP and prevent a European war. After the start of the Second World War in 1939, this purpose became obsolete and production of the Freiheitsbriefe ceased. However, the journal Das wahre Deutschland, published from London largely by Hans Albert Kluthe, initially continued to appear before it too was discontinued in 1940. From 1941 onwards, the DFP no longer appeared.
- Beatrix Bouvier: Die Deutsche Freiheitspartei (DFP): ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Opposition gegen den Nationalsozialismus. Frankfurt am Main, 1972.
- The German political emigration 1933-1945. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
- Vanessa Conze: The Europe of the Germans: Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920-1970). Oldenbourg Verlag, 2005, p. 239 ff.