Firenze Campo di Marte train station
|Firenze Campo di Marte|
Florence Campo Marte Station
|Metropolitan City||Metropolitan city of Florence|
|List of railway stations in Italy|
Campo Marte station is the second largest station in Florence and is located in the homonymous Quartier 2 (Campo di Marte). The nine platforms are connected by an underpass. In addition, the platforms are connected by a pedestrian bridge that spans the railway area and connects Via Mannelli with Viale Malta. Campo di Marte is primarily a freight and postal station, but is also involved in passenger services at a regional level. It is also close to the stadium and is used by many fans during AC Florence football matches.
In 1864 a commission was set up in Florence to prepare for its conversion into the capital of Italy. Giuseppe Poggi was commissioned to draw up a plan for this purpose. Poggi planned to combine the various Florentine stations into one large main station, which would have been located north of the present Firenze SMN station between Piazza Cure and the Fortezza da Basso. However, he could not prevail against the city council and the still independent railway companies. His plans were also hindered by the existing railway line Florence – Arezzo(Via ferrata aretina), which runs directly along the walls of the city. However, it soon became clear that the boundary of Florence (which until then had consisted of the rings of walls dating back to 1366) would have to be extended to take account of the new urban development requirements. A government decree allowed the city of Florence to incorporate parts of the surrounding municipalities of Pellegrino, Careggi, Rovezzano, Legnaia, Fiesole, Galluzzo and Bagno a Ripoli. This also had the side effect of increasing one of the main sources of revenue for the city treasury – the import duty on goods.
In 1866 the first PRA (Piano regolatore dell’ampliamento) was drawn up for the right bank of the Arno. The projects that were to be decisive for the development of the Campo di Marte area were fixed in it: A military training area with barracks, the customs border and the relocation of the railway line. The relocation of the via ferrata aretina was to make way for new residential areas along the former city walls. An influx of 50,000 people from Turin to Florence was expected. The military also demanded that the railway line be moved in the direction of the planned barracks and military training area. The new course of the railway line was used for a long time by the city as a customs border that could be easily controlled. Thus there was initially no interest in relocating the railway line again. For the growing quarter Campo di Marte the railway line became more and more an obstacle and pushed it into a peripheral position
In 1893, the railway administration authorised the construction of a single overbridge on the railway line – the Ponte al Pino. The Cure and Lungo l’Affrico crossings remained at ground level and with barriers. Already in 1899, before the completion of the Campo di Marte station (1901), there were requests to the city administration to build a crossing, tunnel or passable overpass between Ponte al pino and Piazza Alberti.
In 1906 a new zoning plan came into force and for the first time an attempt was made to move military activities out of the zone. In 1908, after the fire that destroyed the newly built Campo Marte station, the Association of Engineers proposed to move the railway line and the station directly to the hills of Fiesole to the north. The town even agreed with the railway administration on this project. For the abandoned station, a piazza with streets diverging in a star shape and a large park were proposed.
In 1912 the railway company had the bridge built at Piazza Cure
In 1915, a development plan was drawn up for the entire town and the proposal was again made to use the military training area for residential buildings. The assessor for public works, Giovanni Bellincioni, made supplementary proposals to the development plan a year later. Among other things, they provided for the relocation of the railway line, as it was “…a greater obstacle than a river could ever be …”. For the Piazza d’Armi, it provided for residential development. The plan to move the railway line northwards was ultimately dropped in 1924 with the next development plan. This also contained a building ban for the Piazza d’Armi. At the end of the twenties, it finally received its final destination for sporting purposes, culminating in 1931 with the opening of the stadium planned by Pier Luigi Nervi. Later (1937), the construction of a new railway station building was also proposed. With these measures the Campo Marte railway station was cemented more and more, although the development plan of 1924 had foreseen the relocation of the railway line as one of the most urgent objectives.
In 1937, the railway administration of the city proposed to build a large central station Campo Marte. As a result, there was a great deal of land speculation and building activity, which immediately came to a halt when the project was rejected. Since that time, there have been repeated attempts to mitigate the divisive effect of the railway line and the railway site. This culminated in 1980 with a proposal by P.A. Cetica to build a massive structure over the entire railroad tracks. But all proposals and plans were rejected, so that in 1986 Paolo Cioni resignedly stated: “Meanwhile, the Direttissima has stopped at Rovezzano and the loop of the railway, with its inevitable stop, wandering between Porta alla Croce and Coverciano, is still THE urban planning problem of Florence”
For some time now, the Firenze Campo Marte station has been included in the planning for the Bologna-Florence-Rome high-speed line and is to take on more of the role of a regional station in the future.
Campo Marte in a painting from 1860
Florence before the expansion planning in 1861
Giuseppe Poggi’s plan for the urban expansion of Florence (1865)
The customs houses “Barriera delle Querce” in Florence (around 1895)
The Campo Marte station building around 1901
“Piazza d’Armi” in Florence around 1900
Variants for the relocation of the station (1908)
- La Macchina e il suo spazio. La ferrovia nella citta. Alinea, Florence 1983.
- Francesca Petrucci (Red.): Il Disegno della città. L’urbanistica a Firenze nell’Ottocento e nel Novecento (= Cataloghi. 14, Alinea, Florence 1986.
- Marco Piccardi, Carlo Romagnoli: Campo di Marte. Storie di confine e di paesaggio urbano. La casa Usher, Florence 1990.
– Collection of pictures, videos and audio files