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Eden Plans

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Eden Plans[1] are the plans for the unification of Europe, named after the British Foreign Secretary Robert Anthony Eden and presented by him on 16 September 1952 and during the Berlin Conference of Foreign Ministers from 25 January to 18 February 1954[2] plans for the unification of Europe[3], or for the possible early reunification of Germany.[4][5] Anthony Eden was also a signatory of the Germany Treaty of 1952, according to which the Federal Republic of Germany was given back the sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[6] As early as June 1952, Robert Schuman had discussed his political union plan with Anthony Eden. Eden’s hopes were to incorporate the political integration of the six powers of the Coal and Steel Community into the Council of Europe.[7]

Background

Concept of the first Eden Plan

A meeting of the “Consultative Assembly” of the Council of Europe was held from 15 to 30 September 1952, with a debate on the future of Europe. At the meeting, on 16 September 1952, Eden presented his first plan[8], which envisaged the creation of an “Atlantic Alliance” consisting of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the USA.[9] This was to be supported by:

  • USA, Canada: participation in European regional groupings, without voting rights
  • Great Britain with Commonwealth: special position with regard to European regional unions
  • Council of Europe with 14 member states: without USA and Canada, with Germany

His second plan, this time with reference to the conditions of a possible reunification of Germany[10], was presented by Eden at the Berlin Conference of Foreign Ministers, which lasted from 25 January to 18 February 1954[11] where Eden’s plan was contrasted with that of Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov.[12] Winston Churchill had been pushing for this meeting since news of Stalin’s death had reached him.[13] The conference ultimately failed because of a lack of willingness to compromise, since the four occupying powers, while aiming at peaceful coexistence in Europe, always linked its achievement to their conception of German policy, which is why they could not agree on a concept.[14][15] Eden envisaged the following for Germany:

  • Free elections throughout Germany for the formation of a National Assembly
  • Convening of the National Assembly
  • Elaboration of a draft constitution and preparation of peace negotiations
  • Adoption of the constitution and formation of an all-German government, which will be responsible for the
  • Signing and entry into force of the peace treaty should bear

Eden’s German policy goal was to create a Germany that was unified according to Western standards, democratic, and thus integrated into the West. However, the failure of this conference also averted the disruption of the Western integration advocated by Konrad Adenauer.[16]

The Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov rejected the plan as completely unacceptable and then submitted his own proposals to the conference (Molotov Plan).

Individual references

  1. Foreign policy situation.In: Federal Archives. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  2. Berlin Conference of Foreign Ministers (1954) in the Dodis database of Swiss diplomatic documents
  3. ANTHONY EDEN – The older hands. In Der Spiegel. Vol. 39, 24 September 1952 (online[accessed 24 August 2015]).
  4. Jong Hoon Shin:A special relationship to European integration: the prehistory and development of the EEC in the German and British public spheres 1954-1959.(PDF) In: pp. 64 ff. 2007, retrieved 24 August 2015.
  5. The activities of the Council of Europe – Historical events of European integration (1945-2009) – CVCE website.In:www.cvce.eu. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  6. Germany Treaty(1952).In: constitutions. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  7. European planning.(PDF) In: Union inGermany – Information Service. 26 July 1952, retrieved 24 August 2015.
  8. Hans August Lücker:Our Fatherland Europe.(PDF) University of Trier, retrieved 24 August 2015.
  9. Duitslandstudies: The plans of Robert Anthony Eden.(No longer available online.) In: duitslandstudies.blogspot.de. Archived fromOriginal2February 2016; retrieved.
  10. REUNION Renounced on initiative. In Der Spiegel. Vol. 10, 3 March 1954 (online[accessed 24 August 2015]).
  11. Cabinet minutes: foreign and German policy.In: Bundesarchiv. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  12. FOUR CONFERENCE: Key lies in Far East. In Der Spiegel. Vol. 8, 17 February 1954 (online[accessed 24 August 2015]).
  13. Deutschlandfunk: 25.1.1954 – 50 years ago.Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  14. HdG Caricatures – Page Content.In:www.hdg.de. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  15. Four voices and no quartet. In: Die Zeit. 18.February 1954 (online[accessed 24 August 2015]).
  16. Hans-Jürgen Schröder:American German Policy in the Cold War 1954-1961.(PDF) Retrieved August 24, 2015.