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Cremastinae

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Cremastinae
Cremastinae bei der Paarung

Cremastinae mating

System
Order: Insects
Order: Hymenoptera
Submission: Waist wasps (Apocrita)
Partial Order: Legimmen (Terebrantia)
Family: Ichneumon wasps (Ichneumonidae)
Subfamily: Cremastinae
Scientific name
Cremastinae
Forester, 1869

Cremastinae is a relatively small subfamily of ichneumon wasps with about 840 species in 36 genera (see below and[1]). Of relatively many genera only one or a few species are known, species-rich are the genera Cremastus, Temelucha and Pristomerus. The subfamily is distributed worldwide, but most species occur in the tropics and subtropics.[2]

Morphology

Cremastinae ichneumonflies are small to medium-sized, the forewings are 3 to 14 mm long. The vein in the forewing is more or less reduced, the pentagonal cell (areola) is usually open, the stigma is short and often triangular. The clypeus is convex and separated from the face by a furrow. The face is mostly pale.[3][4]

Lifestyle

Like all ichneumon flies, the Cremastinae are parasitoids. Their hosts are mostly butterflies, rarely beetles, whose larvae live hidden in stems, leaf rollers or galls. In the native species, butterflies are always parasitized. The eggs are laid inside the caterpillars (larvae) where they develop endoparasitically. The adult host larvae are killed before (or shortly after) pupation.[2][5]

System

Within the Ichneumonidae, the Cremastinae with the subfamilies Anomaloninae, Campopleginae, Nesomesochorinae, and Ophioninae probably represent one phylogenetic group.[6] There is no phylogenetic study of the subfamily, but it is considered monophyletic.[7]

Genera

Pristomerus kagga, from South Africa

according to Taxapad[1] there are the following genera:

  • Acourtia Cockerell,192: 1 species Acourtia perplexa, Europe
  • Belesica Waterston,1929: 2 species, Afrotropis
  • Celor Kokujev,1901: 3 species, Eastern Palaearctic
  • Creagrura Townes,1971: 1 species, Neotropics
  • Cremastus Gravenhorst,1829: about 130 species, worldwide
  • Dimophora Förster,1869: 17 species, Palaearctic, Neotropical, Nearctic
  • Pristomerus mbaka from South Africa

    Dolichopselephus Ashmead,1890: 5 species, Nearctic

  • Eiphosoma Cresson,1865: 57 species, Nearctic, Neotropical[8][1]
  • Eucremastoides Kolarov,1980: 1 species, Bulgaria, Turkey
  • Eucremastus Szépligeti,1905: 12 species, Afrotropis, Palaearctic
  • Eurygenys Townes,1971: 5 species, Madagascar, South Africa
  • Eutanygaster Cameron,1911: 3 species, Neotropis
  • Pristomerus mboum from South Africa

    Fafana Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2011: 1 species, Madagascar

  • Gahus Gauld, 1984: 1 species, Australia
  • Hanauella Enderlein, 1921: 1 species, Brazil
  • Kasparyania Narolsky, 1990: 1 species, Eastern Palaearctic
  • Mecotes Townes, 1971: 1 species, Indonesia
  • Narolskyia Koçak & Kemal, 2009: 1 species, Armenia, Georgia
  • Neleothymus Förster, 1869: 9 species, Neotropis, Nearctis
  • Temelucha rea from Malta

    Nothocremastus Dasch, 1979: 20 species, Holarctic

  • Noxocremastus Narolsky, 1990: 5 species, Afrotropis, Eastern Palaearctic
  • Pharetrophora Narolsky,1994: 13 species, Palaearctic
  • Temelucha rea, from Malta from dorsal side

    Pimplomorpha Cameron,1906: 6 species, South Africa, Madagascar

  • Polyconus Townes,1971: 1 species, Peru
  • Pristomerus Curtis,1836: 140 species, worldwide distribution, especially many species in the tropics, often the hosts (small lepidopterans) are important pests on crops.[7]
  • Pseuderipternus Viereck,1917: 2 species, Nearctic
  • Pseudocremastus Szépligeti,1905: 1 species, Palaearctic
  • Ptilobaptus Townes,1971: 4 species, Neotropics
  • Pycnoflatsor Narolsky & Schoenitzer, 2001: 2 species, Palearctic[9]
  • Ricrena Cameron, 1906: 1 species, South Africa
  • Sustenus Townes,1971: 1 species, China
  • Tanychela Townes,1971: 2 species, Nearctic, Neotropical
  • Trathala striata, lateral and head from front (South Korea and India)

    Temelucha Förster, 1869: 236 species, 47 of them in the Western Palearctic, worldwide distribution[10]

  • Tersoakus Narolsky, 2002: 1 species, Eastern Palaearctic
  • Trathala Cameron, 1899: 101 species, worldwide distribution[11]
  • Xiphosomella Szépligeti, 1905: 55 species, Neotropical, of which 2 species in the Nearctic

Web links

Commons: Cremastinae– Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual references

  1. a b c Yu, D.S., Van Achterberg, C. & Horstmann, K.: Taxapad 2012, Ichneumonoidea 2011. database on flash-drive. In: taxapad.com. Ottawa, Ontario 2012.
  2. a b K. Schmidt & F. Zmudzinski: Contributions to the knowledge of the Baden ichneumonid fauna (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). 7. Subfamilies Anomalinae, Banchinae (except Banchini), Cremastinae, Diplazontinae. In: carolinea. Vol. 67. karlsruhe 2009, pp. 133-155.
  3. H. Goulet & J. T. Huber: Hymenoptera of the World: An identification guide to families. Ottawa 1993, ISBN 0-660-14933-8, p. 439.
  4. Subfamily Cremastinae – BugGuide.Net.Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  5. I. Gauld & B. Bolton: The Hymenoptera. Oxford Univ. Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-858521-7, p. 207.
  6. Andrew M.R. Bennett, Sophie Cardinal, Ian D. Gauld, David B. Wahl: Phylogeny of the subfamilies of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). In: J. Hymenoptera Res. vol. 71, 2019, pp. 1-156.
  7. a b Pascal Rousse& Simon van Noort: Revision of the Afrotropical species of Pristomerus (Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae), with descriptions of 31 new species. In: European Journal of Taxonomy. Vol. 124, 2015, pp. 1-129 (europeanjournaloftaxonomy.eu).
  8. Melo, IF., Onody, H.C. & Penteado-Dias, A.M.: New species of the Eiphosoma dentator (Fabricius, 1804) species-group (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae) from Brazil. In: Braz. J. Biol. vol. 72, no. 2, 2012, pp. 389-391 .
  9. Nikolai Narolsky, Klaus Schönitzer: A New Palearctic Genus of Cremastine Wasps from the Flats of the Danube Delta (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae). In: Entomofauna. Vol. 22, No. 8. Ansfelden 29 September 2001, pp. 197-204 (online (PDF)on ZOBODAT ).
  10. Z. Vas: A new species of Temelucha Förster from Malta with an updated and revised identification key to the Western Palaearctic Temelucha species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae). In: J. Hymenopt. Res. vol. 48, 2016, pp. 67-84, doi:10.3897/JHR.48.7094.
  11. Jin-Kyung Choi, Janko Kolarov, Gyu-Won Kang, Jong-Wook Lee: Review of the Palaearctic Trathala Species (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae). In: Anim. Syst. Evol. Divers. Vol. 30, No. 4, 2014, pp. 327-333 , doi:10.5635/ASED.2014.30.4.327.