Community of Bunde
|Height:||2.4 m above sea level|
|Population Density:||80 inhabitants/km²|
Map of the Rheiderland
Bunderhammrich is a village in East Frisia. Politically, it belongs to the municipality of Bunde. Bunderhammrich is located in the Rheiderland, one of the four historic landscapes of the district of Leer.
Bunderhammrich is a row settlement. It was built on a sleep dike, which was erected to protect Marienchor. The village lies at an average height of 2.4 metres above sea level. Due to the location on the former dike, there is Altmarsch to the east of the village, while to the west there is the area of Landschaftspolder, which was only reclaimed from the Dollart in 1751.
Earliest evidence of the presence of people in Bunderhammrich are pottery shards dated to the Roman Imperial period and the Middle Ages. The area of the present-day Dollart and the areas reclaimed from the sea is old settlement land that was still densely populated in the late Middle Ages. The bay, like the Jade Bay, is the result of sea incursions in the late Middle Ages that largely cleared the original marshland. At least 20 parishes and 10 to 15 other villages as well as three monasteries perished as a result of the formation of the Dollart and collapses of the Ems bank. The eastern Dollart basin formed in the first half of the 15th century. As early as 1454, an emergency dike had been built from the solid bank of the Ems across the moorland to the high Geest near Finsterwolde to protect the Oldambt. The western bosom, on whose territory Bunderhammrich lies, was probably not built until the 1460s. Large parts of this area were still largely untouched by the sea when the Second Cosmas and Damian Flood in 1509, and then the Antoni Flood in 1511, penetrated far inland. As a result, a dike protecting Marienchor was built in the area of Bunderhammrich as early as 1509. After the coastline was shifted by further dyking, the settlement of the now no longer needed dyke in Bunderhammrich began. The wide areas around the village were given either in stretching right or in hereditary lease. In addition, many agricultural workers settled in the village. In 1719 there were 24 herds and 27 households of agricultural workers. Politically, the inhabitants were represented until the 19th century by a Schüttmeister, who was elected by the voters in the village.
After the Battle of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806, East Frisia was annexed into the Kingdom of Holland and thus into the French sphere of power. This annexation was recognized by Prussia in 1807 in the Peace of Tilsit. Under the rule of the Netherlands, an administrative reorganization took place in 1807 and Bunderhammrich was annexed to the Commune Landschapspolder, which also included Landschaftspolder, Heinitzpolder, Böhmerwold and St. Georgiwold. This Commune thus formed a forerunner of the later municipality of Dollart. After Napoleon’s defeat, the old administrative structures were restored and the individual municipalities of the Commune Landschapspolder became independent again. Under Hanoverian rule, Bunderhammrich was part of the Amt Weener, and after the annexation of the Kingdom of Hanover by Prussia in 1866, it became a municipality in the administrative district of Weener from 1885, which was absorbed into the administrative district of Leer in 1932.
Development of the place name
The place is mentioned in 1573 as nye Hammerick, in 1645 as Niehamrich, in 1787 as the new Hamrich. Since 1818, the current name Bunderhammrich is common.
Due to the remote location of the village and the loss of importance of agricultural workers, the population development stagnated in the 19th and 20th centuries. After the Second World War, the proportion of refugees and displaced persons from the eastern territories of the German Reich in the local population was 20.5 percent, only slightly above the East Frisian average. By 1950, their share had decreased to 15.1 percent.
- Description of Bunderhammrich in the historical place database of the East Frisian landscape
- Working group of the local chroniclers of the Ostfriesische Landschaft Bunderhammrich, municipality of Bunde, district of Leer (PDF; 550 kB), viewed on 15 December 2011.
- Walter Deeters: Kleinstaat und Provinz. General History of the Modern Era, in Karl-Ernst Behre/Hajo van Lengen: Ostfriesland. Geschichte und Gestalt einer Kulturlandschaft, Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1995, ISBN 3-925365-85-0, p. 167.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historisches Gemeindeverzeichnis für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Name, boundary and key number changes in municipalities, districts and administrative districts from 27. 5. 1970 to 31. 12. 1982. W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1, p. 263.
- StBA: Changes in Germany’s municipalities, see 2001