Albrecht Dürer

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Self-portrait (Münchner Selbstbildnis), oil on canvas (1500), Alte Pinakothek, Munich

Signatur Albrecht Dürer.PNG

Dürer’s monogram (1498)

Porträt der Barbara Dürer, geb. Holper, (1490/93), Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg[1] Porträt Albrecht Dürers des Älteren, (1490), Galleria degli Uffizi, Florenz
Portrait of Barbara Dürer, née
, (1490/93),
Germanisches Nationalmuseum,
Portrait of Albrecht Dürer the Elder,
(1490), Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Dürer coat of arms, painted by an unknown glass painter

Self-portrait of the thirteen-year-old, silverpoint on white primed paper (1484), oldest surviving self-portrait by Albrecht Dürer, Albertina, Vienna

Pond in the woods, watercolour c. 1495, British Museum, London

Europeanhare (1502), gouache watercolour on paper, Albertina, Vienna

Feast of the Rosary, oil on poplar wood (1506), National Gallery, Prague

The Albrecht Dürer House in Nuremberg, Dürer’s place of residence and work from 1509 onwards

The Last Judgement, woodcut (ca. 1510), from The Little Passion

All Saints’ picture (“Landau Altar”), oil on lime wood (1511), Kunsthistorisches Museum

Maria with the pear carving, oil on lime wood (1512), Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna

St. Jerome in the Case, copperplate engraving (1514)

Portrait of the Mother (1514), charcoal drawing, 42.1 cm × 30.3 cm, Kupferstichkabinett Berlin

Dürer points to his spleen, sketch

Epitaph of Dürer’s grave in Nuremberg

Albrecht Dürer the Younger (also Duerer; * 21 May 1471 in Nuremberg; † 6 April 1528 ibidem) was a German painter, graphic artist, mathematician and art theorist. With his paintings, drawings, copperplate engravings and woodcuts he is one of the outstanding representatives of the Renaissance.


The name Dürer is indirectly derived from the Hungarian Ajtósi. Albrecht Dürer the Elder, who came from the village of Ajtós near the town of Gyula in Hungary, is known in Hungary by this name (Ajtósi Dürer Albrecht). In Germany he initially called himself Thürer (= door maker), which in Hungarian means ajtós(ajtó = door).

Albrecht Dürer adapted the spelling Türer used by his father to the Franconian pronunciation of the hard consonants common in Nuremberg and, by changing it to Dürer, created the prerequisite for his monogram, the capital A with the subscript D.

Dürer was the first important artist after Martin Schongauer to systematically mark his prints with a monogram. This indication of origin soon became a seal of quality that was also imitated.


Until independence in 1497

Albrecht Dürer’s father of the same name came to Nuremberg from Gyula in Hungary in 1455 and successfully practiced the trade of a goldsmith here. In 1467 he married Barbara Holper (* 1452; † 16 May 1514), the daughter of Hieronymus Holper. Within 25 years she gave birth to 18 children, of whom only three survived childhood[2] survived childhood.

The third child of this marriage, Albrecht was born on May 21, 1471: “I Albrecht Dürer was born on Prudentientage, which was Friday, since one counted 1471 year, in the free imperial city of Nuremberg.”[3] Since 1475 the Dürer family lived in their own house below the castle (Burgstr. 27: corner house of the alley below the Vesten/ today: Obere Schmiedgasse). Albrecht Dürer Jr. described his mother as a busy churchgoer, who punished her children “diligently” and often. “Probably weakened by the many pregnancies, she was often ill.”

Albrecht Dürer attended school until he was 13 years old.[4] In his early youth, his father took him into his workshop to train him as a goldsmith. His bust portrait, which he drew on parchment after the mirror in 1484 (now in the Albertina in Vienna) and a Madonna with two angels from 1485 (Kupferstichkabinett Berlin) date from these years of apprenticeship.

From the end of 1486 to 1490 he studied and worked with the Nuremberg painter Michael Wolgemut; indications suggest that Dürer was involved in the design work for the Schedel’s World Chronicle published in 1493. In addition, Dürer also educated himself on the basis of contemporary copperplate engravings, for example those by Martin Schongauer.

From Easter 1490 to Whitsun 1494, Dürer went on a wandering tour of the Upper Rhine; the exact route of this first of three major journeys during his life is unknown. It is possible that he was first in the Netherlands or on the Middle Rhine before he went to Alsace in 1492. He did not get to know the painter Martin Schongauer, who lived in Colmar and whose work influenced him greatly, as he had already died on February 2, 1491. Later Dürer worked in Basel. Here he created the famous woodcuts for Sebastian Brant’s Ship of Fools (first print 1494).[5] In Nuremberg he had a close friendship with the patrician and humanist Willibald Pirckheimer since his youth; recent research suggests that this friendship may also have had a homoerotic side.[6][7]

In 1494 he married Agnes Frey (1475-1539), the daughter of a friend of his father from a long-established, respected Nuremberg family, who, however, only brought 200 Florin dowry into the marriage. The marriage remained childless.

In the following period until 1500 he created a series of small landscape watercolours with Nuremberg motifs or with motifs from stations on his first journey to Italy, which he set out on in the first half of October 1494, just three months after his wedding. This journey intensified his interest in the art of the Quattrocento. In May 1495 he returned to Nuremberg.

It is doubted by recent research that Dürer ever crossed the borders of the German-speaking area in the course of this journey,[8] and the evidence against a stay in Venice is accumulating: Dürer himself did not mention a trip to Venice in his family chronicle of 1494/95. Some interpret the Italian features in his works from 1497 onwards as a direct influence of the Paduan painter Andrea Mantegna, who was not in Padua in 1494/95, but whose works Dürer could have seen there. It can only be proved that Dürer was in Innsbruck, Trento and Arco near Lake Garda. There is no trace of places south of Arco in Dürer’s watercolours, so not of Venice either. The route also speaks against the Venice theory: for Dürer it would have been more convenient to take the usual route to Venice for Nurembergers (merchants), which ran via Cortina and Treviso and was called “Via Norimbergi”. The pictures from his later, demonstrably Venetian period from 1505 onwards have clearly stronger Venetian characteristics.[9][10]

Dürer became self-employed in 1497, and probably from 1503 he was able to run a workshop in the old town of Nuremberg with Hans Schäufelein, Hans von Kulmbach and Hans Baldung Grien as his collaborators. He worked very intensively on his works. This first period of his artistic life was dominated by portraits and some self-portraits: the portrait of his father (1497) in London (National Gallery), his self-portrait (1498) in the Prado in Madrid, that of the Lindau merchant Oswald Krell (inscribed “Oswolt Krel. 1499”) in Munich (Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlung), his Self-Portrait (1500) also in Munich, Portrait of Frederick the Wise (1494/97) in Berlin (Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz), and others. The small Christ on the Cross in the Dresden Gallery, a picture of incomparable fineness of execution, also dates from 1500, and from the same period an altarpiece also in Dresden (“The Seven Sorrows of Mary” and Mary Adoring the Child, central panel in Munich), the “Dresden Altarpiece”.

However, he mainly devoted himself to copper engraving and drawing models for the woodcut. Especially the copperplate engraving he tried very early; the first dated sheet is from 1497, which was certainly already preceded by several others. Other works from this period include: The Revelation of John (1498), a series of 16 woodcuts, Adam and Eve (1504), a copperplate engraving, and The Prodigal Son with the Pigs (c. 1496)(fig.), whose depiction of animals became decisive for the re-breeding of the so-called Albrecht Dürer pig.

Dürer’s connection to humanism is expressed, among other things, in the illustrations to Conrad Celtis’ work Quatuor libri Amorum ( 1502), who for his part had already praised Dürer as the second Apelles.

Journey to Venice (1505-1507)

In 1505 he made a documented trip to Venice, where the greatest Renaissance painters of the Venetian school, Titian, Giorgione, Palma il Vecchio, were active at the time. Above all, he was impressed by Giovanni Bellini, whom he praised in a letter as the “pest in gemell” (best in painting). If his serious studies, diligence and insight had taught him earlier in his homeland to appreciate the value of correctness of drawing and a true conception of nature, here he saw an undreamed-of power and depth of colouring that had a lasting effect on him.

The German merchants in Venice, whose chief elder was Jakob Fugger of Augsburg, ordered a large picture for St. Bartholomew’s Church, the Feast of the Rosary, which Emperor Rudolf II later purchased for a large sum and had four men carry it to Prague, where it is now in the Národní Galerie (National Gallery) (previously in the Strahov Monastery there). It depicts a coronation of the Madonna by two angels. The Virgin is handing rosaries to the Emperor, the Christ Child to the Pope, as well as St. Dominic and several angels to the bystanders. In the picture, which has been very much spoiled by overpainting, the Venetian influence is clearly visible in the composition and colouring. In Venice Dürer also painted a few portraits, e.g. Burkhard von Speyer in 1506.[11] Although Dürer was highly respected in Venice and the Venice Council offered him an annual salary of 200 ducats if he would settle in the city permanently, he made the return journey to his hometown. A copy of Euclid’s Elements of Mathematics published in Venice in 1505 bears Dürer’s monogram together with the words: Dz puch hab ich zw Venedich vm ein Dugatn kawft im 1507 jor. Albrecht Dürer (“This book I bought in Venice for a ducat in 1507. year. Albrecht Dürer”).[12]


From 1509 Dürer was the envoy of the Great Council in Nuremberg, and so it can be assumed that he was significantly involved in the planning of artistic projects in the city.

During these years Dürer published, in addition to many smaller works in copperplate engraving and woodcut, three impressive woodcut series; in these complexes of works Dürer’s mastery in the field of graphic art is particularly evident. In detail these are:

  • The small (woodcut) Passion (dated 1509 and 1510) with 37 leaves in the format 130 × 100 mm, published as a book in 1511
  • The large Passion (1510), which differs substantially in presentation and format from the small one and consists of 11 representations from the life of the Saviour and a title page
  • TheLife of Mary and The Life of Mary (1510 and 1511) in 20 representations

Also to be mentioned from this period are:

  • The Holy Trinity (woodcut, 1511)
  • The Mass of St. Gregory
  • Saint Christopher
  • The Holy Family with Mother Anna
  • Joachim with the rosary

At that time Dürer also made attempts to carve on copper with the cold needle; thus he produced Die heilige Veronika (St. Veronica) of 1510, Der Leidensheiland (The Suffering Saviour) and Der büßenende Hieronymus (The Atoning Jerome), both of 1512. From this time on Dürer’s works in woodcut and engraving predominate, and one encounters paintings by his hand less frequently.

Of the paintings, the panel painting Mary with the pear-cut is known from the year 1512. In the same year falls largely a series of small copper engravings comprising a third representation of the Passion. Dürer also received a charter from his patron Emperor Maximilian to protect him from copying his woodcuts and copper engravings. Still to be mentioned as outstanding works from 1512 are the engravings: Mary on the Lawn Bench, Christ the Penitent, both needle works, St. Jerome in the Rocky Ravine before the Prayer Desk, and the Resurrection,[13] furthermore in 1513 the sweat cloth of Veronica, held by two angels[14] (a very similar motif was created in 1516 as an iron etching[15]) and 1514 the Bagpiper.[16]

Dürer worked several times on behalf of the Emperor Maximilian I.. Since 1510/11 at the latest, there were connections, possibly mediated by Willibald Pirckheimer. All works served at least indirectly the honour and fame of the emperor – besides Dürer, the artists Hans Burgkmair, Hans Schäufelin and Beck or also Albrecht Altdorfer, Lucas Cranach and Jörg Breu were active in this sense.

A manuscript of a fencing book (Cod. HS 26-232), dated 1512, is preserved in the Albertina in Vienna. The cover bears the inscription OPUS ALBERTI DURERI (Work of Albrecht Dürer). 200 large-format parchment leaves contain coloured pen and ink drawings of wrestling and fencing scenes. It is not clear whether the drawings were intended as an independent work or as a model for a printed fencing book with woodcuts that was never executed. A commission from Emperor Maximilian cannot be proven, but it seems likely.[17]

Other works: Illustrations of the Hieroglyphs of the Horapollon in the translation by Willibald Pirckheimer; The Triumph (Gate of Honour of Maximilian I and Great Triumphal Chariot), for which Dürer and his workshop collaborators Hans Springinklee and Wolf Traut had to supply the largest and most important part (the inscriptions are due to Johann Neudörffer); the Prayer Book of Maximilian I, possibly intended for the Order of St. George.

At this time he produced in parallel his three works known as master engravings: Knight, Death and Devil (1513), St. Jerome in the Case (1514), Melencolia I (1514), and perhaps the altarpiece of the Nativity with the two founder brothers Paumgartner, originally intended for St. Catherine’s Church in Nuremberg, now in the Munich Pinakothek, known as the Paumgartner Altarpiece. In the same year he also engraved a single dancing peasant couple and depicted the four-legged dancers quite vividly. Two months before their deaths († 1514) he produced a charcoal drawing of his mother; the first portrait of a terminally ill person. Since 1515, iron etchings by Dürer have also survived.


The years immediately preceding his Dutch journey were marked by an intense devotion to his theoretical work. He was unable to complete his textbook on painting due to his demise, but his textbook on geometry and mathematics appeared in Nuremberg in 1525, followed by the Befestigungslehre in 1527. Posthumously, his main theoretical work on the theory of proportion, the Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion (Four Books of Human Proportion), was finally published in 1528 thanks to his wife Agnes.

In 1515 he created the woodcut Rhinocerus, one of Dürer’s most famous works.

In the summer of 1518 he was a representative of the city of Nuremberg at the Diet of Augsburg, where he immortalized Jakob Fugger[18][19] and other important personalities immortalized in the work. The acquaintance with writings of Luther, “who helped me out of great closest”, probably falls into this period.

Journey to the Netherlands (1520-1521)

From 12 July 1520, Dürer went with his wife and maid Susanna via Bamberg (to Bishop George III he presented a painted Madonna, a Life of the Virgin, an Apocalypse and, for one florin, copper engravings),[20][21] Frankfurt, Mainz, Cologne to Antwerp. The latter city was to become his central residence during his stay, from where he made numerous excursions to other cities. A year later, on 2 July 1521, he began his return journey.[22]

The reason for the trip was primarily economic.[23] In January 1519, Dürer’s most important patron, Emperor Maximilian I, had died. In 1515, he had granted the artist an annual annuity of 100 gulden, which the city of Nuremberg was to deduct from the imperial tax. With the emperor’s death, the Nuremberg council refused to continue paying this privilege and demanded a new confirmation by Maximilian’s successor, the later Charles V.

The coronation was to take place on 20 October in Aachen, and Dürer used the months beforehand to build up a wide network of people from the near and far surroundings of the pretender to the throne, whom he wanted to win over as advocates for his cause. Above all the favour of Karl’s aunt Margarete of Austria (1480-1530) was to prove decisive.

Confirmation of his pension reached him in Cologne as early as November 12, and yet Dürer lingered in the Netherlands for many more months. This is certainly also related to the success that came to him during the journey. The journey to the Netherlands was an unparalleled triumph, and everywhere the master was showered with respect and admiration, which he received favourably; princes, foreign ambassadors, merchants, scholars, such as Erasmus of Rotterdam, and artists readily welcomed him into their midst. The Antwerp magistrate even offered him in vain an annual salary of 300 Philippsgulden, exemption from taxes, a fine house as a gift, free maintenance, and, moreover, payment for all his public works, in order to induce him to remain permanently in his city.[24]

Of great importance for him were the sight of the Dutch art treasures and the acquaintance with the outstanding artists there. His diary kept during this journey is contained in the written legacy published by Rupprich. Also a large number of portraits of clergymen, princely persons, artists etc. are a result of his Dutch journey.

After his return to his hometown, Dürer again devoted himself to artistic activity. In 1520/21 he directed the decoration of the Nuremberg City Hall, which is now lost and survives in copies from 1530 in Vienna, Albertina. Pirckheimer had designed the program for the façade paintings.

From 1526, the Alte Pinakothek in Munich owns two monumental panels that are among the artist’s most important works: the life-size figures of the four apostles Paul and Peter and the evangelists Mark and John (side pieces), at the same time illustrating the four temperaments (see Temperamentenlehre). Dürer originally gave these panels to the city of Nuremberg, where they were exhibited in the city hall. The oil painting of Hieronymus Holzschuher in Berlin (Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz), the best of all portraits by Dürer’s hand, also dates from 1526, as does the portrait of Jakob Muffel (also in Berlin). Particularly noteworthy – not least because of the unusual type of representation – is the portrait of Johann Kleeberger, which is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. It dates from 1526 and is said to be the last painting Albrecht Dürer made.[25]

In his last years Dürer devoted himself increasingly to the theory of art; in doing so he came to insights that definitely contradicted those of the Italians.

Sickness and death

Dürer’s grave at the St. Johannis cemetery

Dürer died, possibly emaciated by illness (“parched” – though this is more likely to be understood from the source context as a result of his wife’s alleged avarice),[26][27] on April 6, 1528, six weeks before his 57th birthday. It has often been speculated that Dürer had been suffering from malaria since his stay in the Netherlands (in particular Schouwen in the province of Zeeland)[28] In particular Schouwen in the province of Zeeland) at the end of 1520, which made itself felt for the first time in April 1521 in Antwerp with a pronounced symptomatology associated with a strong fever.[29] On an undated sketch in a letter to his physician, he points to his spleen region and writes: “Do der gelb fleck ist und mit dem finger drawff dewt do ist mir we.” (“There where the yellow spot is and where I point my finger, there it hurts me.”). This could indicate splenomegaly, a typical symptom of malaria. However, the drawing was probably made before his stay in the Netherlands. Both the climatic conditions during his wintry journey and his history of illness (Dürer had already had recurrent febrile illnesses since 1507) and the development after 1520 do not altogether fit a typical course of malaria.[30]

According to recent source findings, Dürer died after only four days of acute and severe illness, which is rendered as “pleuresis” by his acquaintance and fellow citizen Christoph II Scheurl (1481-1542), who lived nearby. Pleuresis or pleuritis was the diagnosis, which may also have been caused by pneumonia. A definite statement about the cause of the disease according to today’s medical standard cannot be made by this, but the malaria theory becomes even more questionable.[31]

Dürer was productively active until his death, probably working last on the preparation for printing a main theoretical treatise on the theory of proportion.[32]

On April 7 Dürer was buried. Not far from the grave of his friend Willibald Pirckheimer (St. Johannis I / 1414) Dürer’s earthly remains rested for a long time in the St. Johannis cemetery at Nuremberg under a simple metal slab which his father-in-law Frey had erected for himself and his family until Joachim von Sandrart rebuilt the dilapidated grave in 1681 (St. Johannis I / 0649).

On April 8, with the express permission of the Elder Gentlemen, i.e. the city leaders, the exhumation took place in order to obtain a plaster mask of the famous artist. A lock of hair was also cut off on this occasion.[33]

Art historical appreciation

Rhinocerus, woodcut (1515)

Emperor Maximilian I., oil on lime wood (1519), Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

The Port of Antwerp, pen and ink drawing (1520), Albertina, Vienna

Melencolia I, copper engraving (1514)

Underweysung der messung mit dem Zirckel und richtscheyt in Linien ebnen unnd gantzen corporen, Blatt Konstruktion der Muschellinie, Zeichnung (1525)

Description and freehand drawing of a logarithmic spiral from the Underweysung with the Zirckel und richtscheyt.

Die Vier Apostel, links: „Johannes und Petrus“, 1526, Alte Pinakothek, München rechts: Markus und Lukas
The Four Apostles,
left: “John
and Peter”, 1526,
Alte Pinakothek,
right: Markus
and Lukas

Dürer made significant contributions to the development of woodcut and copperplate engraving. He freed the woodcut from the “service of book illustration” and gave it the rank of an independent work of art that could be placed alongside the painted image. By refining the lines and expanding the artistic vocabulary, Dürer created a richer tonality or finer color gradations and thus brought the woodcut formally close to the copperplate engraving.

Like the woodcut, Dürer also perfected and revolutionized the techniques of copperplate engraving. Through prints such as Knights, Death and the Devil and Melencolia I, he became known throughout Europe. Dürer, just like Titian, Michelangelo, and Raphael, saw the importance of printmaking in spreading his own artistic reputation and generating income through sales. Whereas the Italians used prints to disseminate their paintings, Dürer elevated the woodcut itself to the status of a work of art. In this context, we speak of reproductive graphics and original graphics. Dürer published his graphic cycles in his own publishing house and distributed them through the book trade. The distribution of prints meant that new artistic developments spread quickly and evenly throughout Europe.

Dürer’s heightened self-confidence and multi-layered self-reflection are indicated in his numerous self-portraits. In them, the artist thematizes his own social status and, beyond that, the high value of the fine arts as an intellectual discipline in a time when they were still counted as common crafts.

Munot fortress in Schaffhausen, corresponds to fortress ideas by Dürer

In addition to his artistic work, Dürer wrote works on the problem of perspective in painting, including Underweisung der Messung, and was active with the fortification of cities. An important advisor to him was the Roman architect and architectural theorist Vitruvius with his ten books De architectura. After Dürer’s fortification theory, published in Nuremberg in 1527 under the title Etliche underricht / zu befestigung der Stett / Schlosz / und flecken,[34] in the same year, the Ulm city wall, built in 1480 in the middle of the Danube, was rebuilt by Hans Beheim the Elder, a Nuremberg master builder. It was not until 1585 that the Munot at Schaffhausen was completed after 22 years of construction, the only fortress to reflect Dürer’s ideas.

According to Fedja Anzelewsky, Albrecht Dürer: Werk und Wirkung, electron. Ausg. 1999(Four Books of Human Proportion):
“According to Anzelewsky, the word “art” in this context is to be understood as a regularity, and Dürer is therefore not speaking here in favor of a creation according to the principles of later naturalism.

Dürer as a mathematician

In the history of mathematics, the Renaissance stands out as a period in which significant mathematical advances came in large numbers from practitioners, such as the engineer Simon Stevin, the clockmaker Jost Bürgi, the jurist François Viète, the cartographer Gerhard Mercator, or the artist Piero della Francesca.

The “most mathematical mind”[35] among the artists of his time, however, was Albrecht Dürer. In 1507, for example, he acquired a copy of the first edition of Euclid’s Elements translated into Latin by Zamberti in 1505, the first ever book printing of this work, and in 1515 he collaborated on a map of the hemisphere designed by the court astronomer Johannes Stabius (Stabius-Dürer map) on behalf of Emperor Maximilian I. His copper engraving Melencolia I contains some mathematical hints: On the one hand, a magic square is depicted, whose rows, columns, diagonals, the numbers in the 4 quadrants, the 4 numbers in the center and the 4 numbers in the corner always add up to the same sum 34, and which in its two lower middle fields indicates the year of origin 1514 – in addition, in the fields to the left and right of it, the numbers 4 and 1 indicate Dürer’s initials in the alphabet (4 corresponds to the fourth letter of the alphabet, i.e. the D as Dürer, the 1 to the first letter, i.e. the A as Albrecht); on the other hand, a polyhedron(see main article Rhomboederstumpf) is shown, which is formed by stretching two diametrically opposite corners of a cube to form a rhombohedron and then cutting off the two vertices perpendicular to this axis, so that it again has a circumsphere like the original cube.

Notable in terms of scientific history, however, is his Underweysung der messung mit dem zirckel und richtscheyt in Linien ebnen unnd gantzen corporen, the first mathematics book in the German language with significant new insights. In the title, the word “Messung” is to be understood in the context of the then prevailing translation “Messkunst” for the Greek word geometry, and in today’s literal sense rather means “construction”. In the Underweysung Dürer defines special curves, in particular for the first time the shell line and Pascal’s snail (which he himself called “spider line” because of its construction rule), gives a new construction of an ellipse, recognizes ellipse, parabola and hyperbola as conic sections (and is thus forerunner of Gaspard Monge), shows a new and very exact method for the division of angles and presents the tangent function graphically (motivated by the very practical problem of staggering the height of the type as a function of the height of its placement in such a way that all lines appear to be of the same height). In the same work, he also deals in detail with spirals (called “snail lines” by him) and describes in this context already more than 100 years before Descartes (to whom the discovery is often attributed) a logarithmic spiral, which he calls eternal lini.[36][37][38]

Dürer proceeds deductively and systematically, and is always aware of the fundamental difference between exact solutions (he calls them “demonstrative”) and approximate (“mechanice”) solutions, which sets him apart even from most mathematicians of his time.[39]

In an article published in the English scientific journal Nature, Oxford art historian Martin Kemp pointed out that Dürer drew parquetry that bears a resemblance to a floor covering in the entrance hall of the Molecular and Chemical Sciences Building at the University of Western Australia in Perth, which is based on Penrose parquetry.


Today it is almost certain that Dürer did not actually accept and train pupils; rather, it was evident that he took relatively independent painters or draughtsmen into his workshop as journeymen and let them develop further.

The following are considered to be Dürer’s collaborators
Hans Baldung called “Grien” (from 1503 journeyman in the workshop, until 1508 at the latest),
Barthel Beham,
Sebald Beham,
Georg Pencz,
Hans Schäufelin (from 1503 journeyman),
Hans Springinklee and
Hans Suess of Kulmbach.

There is circumstantial evidence that Matthias Grünewald was rebuffed by Dürer. Grünewald’s collaboration on the Heller Altarpiece, a joint work with Albrecht Dürer, is, however, documented (copy by Jobst Harrich, Frankfurt a. M., Historisches Museum; original burnt).[40] Hans Dürer was very probably active in the workshop of his brother Albrecht.

Works (selection)

Graphic works

  • The Men’s Bath, 1495/96, woodcut
  • Great Passion of Christ, 1496-1498, woodcut series
  • The Penance of Saint Chrysostom, c. 1497, copperplate engraving
  • The Revelation of John, 1498, 15 woodcuts; title page: 1511
  • The three master stitches:
    • Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513, copperplate engraving
    • St. Jerome in the Case, 1514, copperplate engraving
    • Melencolia I, 1514, copper engraving
  • Rhinocerus, 1515, woodcut
  • The Witch, c. 1500, copperplate engraving

About 20 bookplates are attributed to Dürer. The best known of these is probably the one for his friend W. Pirckheimer.


The Paumgartner Altar, oil on wood (after 1503), Alte Pinakothek, Munich

Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand Christians, canvas (transferred) (1507), Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Portrait of Hieronymus Holzschuher, 1526, Picture Gallery of the National Museums, Berlin

  • Portrait of the Father with Rosary (Florence, Uffizi), 1490
  • Portrait of the Mother (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gm 1160), c. 1490-1493
  • Self-portrait with Eryngium (Paris, Louvre) 1493
  • Penitent Jerome (London, National Gallery), c. 1494/97
  • Portrait of the Father (National Gallery, London), 1497
  • Male portrait in front of a green background (Kreuzlingen), ca. 1497
  • Self-portrait with landscape (Madrid, Museo del Prado), 1498
  • Portrait of Hans Tucher (Weimar Classic Foundation), 1499, was removed to Schwarzburg Castle in 1945 and has since been lost
  • Portrait of Felicitas Tucher (Weimar Classic Foundation), 1499, was removed to Schwarzburg Castle in 1945 and has since been lost
  • Portrait of Oswolt Krel (Munich, Alte Pinakothek), 1499. See also: Illustration in Wikipedia
  • Portrait of Elsbeth Tucher (Kassel, Museumslandschaft Hessen-Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister), dat. 1499, limewood 29.1 × 23.3 cm
  • Lamentation of Christ” (“Holzschuher Lamentation”), around 1499 for Hieronymus Holzschuher (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg)
  • Self-portrait in a fur skirt (Munich, Alte Pinakothek), 1500
  • Lamentation of Glim (Munich, Alte Pinakothek), c. 1500
  • Paumgartner Altar (Munich, Alte Pinakothek), after 1503
  • Adoration of the Kings (Florence, Uffizi), dat. 1504
  • The Feast of the Rosary (Prague, Národní galerie/National Gallery), dat. 1506, originally in Venice, S. Bartolomeo
  • The Madonna with the Siskin (Berlin, State Museums), 1506
  • Adam and Eve (Madrid, Prado), 1507
  • Portrait of a Young Man (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), 1507
  • Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand Christians (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), 1507
  • Heller Altar together with Mathias Grünewald (Frankfurt am Main, Historical Museum), 1508/09; central panel burnt, originally in Frankfurt, Dominican Church.
  • All Saints’ picture (“Landau Altar”) (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv. no. 838), 1511
  • The emperor pictures:
    • Emperor Charlemagne (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gm 167, on loan from the City of Nuremberg), 1511/12, 215 × 115.3 cm (exterior), 187.7 × 87.6 cm (interior); an ideal portrait
    • Emperor Sigismund (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gm 168, on loan from the City of Nuremberg), 1512/13, 188.3 × 87.5 cm.
  • Mary with the Pear Slice (also Mary with the Reclining Child with the Pear Slice or Madonna with the Pear Slice) (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), 1512
  • Portrait of Michael Wolgemut (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gm 885, on loan from the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlung since 1911), 1516
  • Jakob Fugger the Rich, (Augsburg, State Gallery of Old German Masters), c. 1518
  • Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I (Nuremberg, Germanic National Museum, Gm 169), 1519
  • Saint Anne of the Blessed Virgin Mary (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art), 1519
  • St. Jerome, (Lisbon, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga), 1521
  • Mary with Child, holding a pear (Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi), 1526
  • Portrait of Johannes Kleberger (Vienna, Museum of Art History), 1526
  • So-called Four Apostles (Munich, Alte Pinakothek), 1526
  • Portrait of Hieronymus Holzschuher (Berlin, Picture Gallery of the National Museums – Prussian Cultural Heritage), 1526

Watercolours and drawings

Valley of Kalchreuth, watercolour (ca. 1495), Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin

The Great Lawn, watercolour (1503), Albertina, Vienna

  • Valley of Kalchreuth (Berlin), ca. 1495
  • Pond in the Forest (London), 1495. Motif is a pond merging into a moor at the edge of the pine forest near Nuremberg, popularly known as “Steggalaswald”.
  • Europeanhare, (Vienna, Albertina), 1502
  • The Great Lawn, watercolour and gouache, (Vienna), 1503
  • Praying Hands (Vienna, Albertina), c. 1508
  • Self-portrait as nude; ca. 1500 to 1512; drawing
  • Head of a walrus, (London, British Museum), 1521

Literary works and writings

  • Textbook of painting, from 1500, of this work only small parts have survived.
  • Vnderweysung der messung mit dem zirckel vnd richtscheyt (= Underweysung of the measurement with the compass and richtscheyt), by Hieronymus Andreae,[41] Nuremberg 1525(Digitalisat)
  • Etliche vnderricht, zu befestigung der Stett, Schloß vnd Flecken, by Hieronymus Andreae, Nuremberg 1527
  • Vier bücher von menschlicher Proportion, by Hieronymus Andreae, Nuremberg 1528 – the posthumously published “Proportionslehre” with the “Ästhetischer Exkurs” (Digitalisat)(Digitalisat whole book), which summarizes Dürer’s art theoretical positions. Latin translation by Joachim Camerarius the Elder: De Sym[m]etria partium in rectis formis hu[m]anorum corporum, Nuremberg 1532(digitalisat)
  • Opera Alberti Dureri, That is, All the Books of the Widely Famous and Artistic Mathematician and Mahler Albrechten Durers von Nürenberg. Arnhem 1604, Online Edition of the Saxon State Library – Dresden State and University Library
  • Opera Alberti Dureri, Arnem 1604, E-Book from the University Library of Vienna (eBooks on Demand)

Authoritative edition of the writings, diaries, etc.:

  • Hans Rupprich (ed.): Dürer. Schriftlicher Nachlaß, 3 volumes, Berlin 1956/1966/1969


Four Books of Human Proportion, 1528

The manuscript of the Proportionslehre is in Dresden; the British Museum has one volume of drawings and four volumes of manuscripts. The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich houses the manuscript of his own revision of the Vnderweysung (4° L. impr. c. n. mss. 119). A removed leaf is in the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel (Bibel-S. 4° 197, back cover)

The fragment of his memorial book is in the Kupferstichkabinett Berlin.[42]

On Dürer’s written estate compare the preliminary report by Hans Rupprich, Dürers schriftlicher Nachlaß und seine Veröffentlichung, in: Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums 1940-1953 (1954), pp. 7-17. Now also Thomas Schauerte: Dürer und Spranger: Ein Autographenfund im Spiegel der europäischen Sammlungsgeschichte, in: Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg 93 (2006), pp. 25-69.



The Dürer bust in the Valhalla

Statue in front of the National Museum in Wrocław (Breslau)

Monuments were erected in Dürer’s honour, especially in the 19th century, and his bust was added to the Valhalla in 1842.

  • Dürer-Pirckheimer-Fountain (1821) at the Maxplatz in Nuremberg after a design by Carl Alexander Heideloff in classicistic forms
  • Bronze statue (1840) on Albrecht Dürer Square in Nuremberg after a model by Christian Daniel Rauch, executed by Jacob Daniel Burgschmiet
  • Bronze statue (1840) in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, designed by Christian Lotsch
  • Commemorative plaque at the wedding house (1845) in Bamberg, where Dürer stayed overnight on his journey to the Netherlands
  • Statue (1853) at the Sempergalerie (Zwingerhof side) in Dresden, designed by Ernst Rietschel
  • Marble bust (1855) in the Neues Museum Berlin, designed by Christian Daniel Rauch
  • Statue (1855) at the Künstlerhaus Hannover, designed by Carl Dopmeyer
  • Bronze statue (1880) in the vestibule of the Museum of Fine Arts in Wrocław, today in front of the National Museum in Wrocław, designed by Robert Härtel
  • Statue (1882) on the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, designed by Anton Schmidgruber
  • Bronze bust (1963) in Szent Miklós Park in Gyula (Hungary), designed by András Kocsis
  • Commemorative plaque (1971) in Antwerp

Commemorative plaque for Albrecht Dürer in Antwerp, Wolstraat

In addition, there are various monuments that refer to works by Dürer.

  • Statue of Emperor Charlemagne in Frankfurt am Main. Dürer’s painting Charlemagne (1513) served as the model for this statue. On 23 August 1843, on the 1000th anniversary of the division of the empire at Verdun, the Städelsche Kunstinstitut donated the sculpture made of red Main sandstone, a work by the sculptor Johann Nepomuk Zwerger, to the city of Frankfurt am Main. It was placed on the eastern central pillar of the Old Bridge facing the city. When the Old Bridge was demolished in 1914, the statue was moved to the Historical Museum, whose entrance it guards today.
  • Dürerstein near Klausen (Chiusa) on the spot from which Dürer drew the panorama of Klausen in 1494. The drawing served as a model for the background in his copperplate engraving Nemesis (The Great Fortune) (c. 1501).
  • Bronze sculpture of the grieving peasant (2002) in Landau-Nußdorf. Peasants’ War Monument commemorating the Palatinate Peasants’ War of 1525, designed by Peter Brauchle. The motif quotes the design drawing The Peasant Column (ca. 1528) by Albrecht Dürer.

The asteroid of the inner main belt (3104) Dürer is named after him.[43]

Banknotes and commemorative coin

Commemorative coin with Dürer monogram (1971)

Some of Albrecht Dürer’s paintings are depicted on Deutsche Mark banknotes. On the occasion of the 500th anniversary of his birth in 1971, the Deutsche Bundesbank issued a commemorative coin in honour of Albrecht Dürer.


  • In the novella Künstlerehe by Leopold Schefer (1828), Albrecht and Agnes Dürer are the main characters.
  • The historical novella Der Wiesenzaun (1913) by Franz Karl Ginzkey deals with an episode from Dürer’s life.


  • 1928: Luther – A Film of the German Reformation (silent film by Hans Kyser featured Eugen Klöpfer as Martin Luther and actor Max Grünberg as Albrecht Dürer)
  • 1971: Albrecht Dürer 1471-1528 (documentary film)
  • 1978: Jörg Ratgeb – Maler (DEFA feature film about Dürer’s contemporary Jerg Ratgeb) Albrecht Dürer was portrayed by Martin Trettau.

Hare (after 1576) by Hans Hofmann, inscribed with Dürer’s monogram and the date 1528


Already in the 16th century and especially around 1600 there were a large number of imitations of Albrecht Dürer’s works. One of the best known is probably Hans Hoffmann (also Hofmann, * around 1530 in Nuremberg; † 1591/2 in Prague). Many of his works are Dürer-quotations modified in details, some of which were thought to be genuine Dürer works until modern times. Paul Juvenell the Elder (1579-1643) also created many Dürer copies.

Naming for schools

Among others, grammar schools in his hometown Nuremberg, in Berlin and in Hagen, a primary school in Frankfurt am Main, Sossenheim and in Aue (Saxony), a secondary school in Merseburg (Saxony-Anhalt), a secondary school in Hassfurt, a secondary modern school in Dortmund and Wiesbaden, a vocational college of the city of Düsseldorf, a comprehensive school in Weiterstadt, a primary school as well as a school for the visually impaired in Mannheim, a comprehensive school in Heilbronn-Neckargartach and a special school in Hanover are named after Albrecht Dürer.

Albrecht Dürer Prize

The city of Nuremberg at times awarded an Albrecht Dürer Prize to painters and graphic artists, such as Arthur Erdle (1929), Max Lacher (1931), Josef Steib (1932), Fritz Griebel (1932), the Fürth painter Karl Hemmerlein (1932),[44] Johann Mutter (1934), Peter Foerster (1935), Joseph Mader (1936), Anton Richter (1938), Karl Schricker (1939), Hans Böhme (1943), Erhard Theodor Astler (1943)[45] and HAP Grieshaber (1971).[46]

Memorial Days

The following church memorial days were established for Albrecht Dürer:

  • Evangelical Church in Germany: April 7 in the Evangelical Name Calendar
  • Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: April 6
  • Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod: April 6[47][48]

Before the introduction of the official EKD name calendar, the commemoration day on 7 April was already listed in:

  • Jörg Erb: The Cloud of Witnesses, Kassel 1951/1963, vol. 4, pp. 508-520
  • Friedrich Hauß: Fathers of Christendom, Wuppertal 1956/1959, new edition Haan: Brockhaus, 1991, ISBN 3-417-24625-3
  • Ferdinand Piper: Evangelical Calendar in Witnesses of Truth, Berlin 1874/1875, vol. 1, pp. 14-25
  • Preußischer Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat: Namenkalender für das deutsche Volk, Berlin 1876
  • Albrecht Saathoff: The Book of Witnesses to the Faith, Göttingen 1951

Under a different date, a commemorative day for Albrecht Dürer was found in:

  • A. Ringwald: Menschen vor Gott, Stuttgart 1957/1968[49]

Dürer as a character

In 2011, Playmobil produced the artist as a Playmobil toy figure on behalf of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum for that year’s exhibition Der frühe Dürer.[50]

Dürer Source

According to tradition, the small Dürer spring near Kalchreuth inspired the artist to his pen and ink drawing Spring in the Forest with Antonius and Paul.

Dürer festival 1828

On the occasion of the 300th anniversary of Albrecht Dürer’s death, 7 banners were hung in the great hall of Nuremberg City Hall as part of the Dürer Festival in 1828. These works were made by students of Peter von Cornelius (Ernst Förster, Carl Heinrich Hermann, Hermann Stilke, Adam Eberle, Wilhelm Kaulbach and Ferdinand Fellner) and show Dürer in various scenarios:

  • Dürer is apprenticed to Wolgemut
  • Dürer’s marriage
  • Dürer’s reception in Antwerp
  • Dürer in the sea storm
  • Death of Dürer’s mother
  • Dürer’s Death
  • Raphael and Dürer at the Throne of Religion

Exhibitions (selection)

Dürer exhibition in Paris, 2004

  • 21. May 1971 to August 1, 1971 Nuremberg, Germanic National Museum: 1471 Albrecht Dürer 1971
  • 23. July 2000 to September 17, 2000 Nuremberg, City Museum Fembohaus: Albrecht Dürer – an artist in his city
  • 5. September – December 8, 2003 Vienna, Albertina: Albrecht Dürer
  • 8. July 2004 to 3 October 2004 Paris, City Hall of the 5th arrondissement: Albrecht Dürer 1471-1528
  • 20. November 2004 to 23 January 2005 Aachen, Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum: Apelles of the Black and White
  • 8. March 2005 to 29 May 2005 Madrid, Museo del Prado: Durero – Obras Maestras de la Albertina
  • 3. November 2006 to 21 January 2007 Zurich, Kunsthaus Zürich: Dürer. Master Engravings
  • 26. June – September 9, 2007 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao: Prints from the Städel Museum
  • 27. September 2007 to 6 January 2008: Exhibition at the Städel Museum
  • 24. May – September 2, 2012 Germanisches Nationalmuseum: The Early Dürer (“largest Dürer exhibition in Germany for 40 years”)
  • 24. October 2012 to 13 January 2013 Paris, ENS des beaux-arts: Albrecht Dürer et son temps: De la Réforme à la guerre de Trente Ans
  • 23. October 2013 to 2 February 2014 Städel Museum Frankfurt: Dürer. Art – Artist – Context (special exhibition with commented exhibition film)
  • 29. January 2016 to 24 April 2016 Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt: Albrecht Dürer – Masterpieces of Printmaking from the Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt
  • 20. September 2019 to 6 January 2020 Vienna, Albertina: Albrecht Dürer

See also


Directories of works

“Drawings by Albrecht Dürer”, Friedrich Lippmann (ed.), ill. vol. 3 with decorative binding of the time

  • Fedja Anzelewsky: Albrecht Dürer. Das malerische Werk, 2 vols., 2nd ed. revised, Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, Berlin 1991 (first 1971); with authoritative census
  • Rainer Schoch, Matthias Mende, Anna Scherbaum (eds.): Albrecht Dürer: The Printed Work
    • Vol. I: Copper engravings, iron etchings and drypoint sheets, Prestel Verlag, Munich 2001
    • Vol. II: Woodcuts and woodcut sequences, Prestel Verlag, Munich 2002
    • Vol. III: Book Illustrations, with contributions by Berthold Hinz and Peter Schreiber, Prestel Verlag, Munich 2004
  • Eduard Flechsig: Albrecht Dürer – His Life and Artistic Development, Two Volumes, 1928-1931, G. Grote’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Berlin; Printed by Fischer & Wittig in Leipzig
  • Friedrich Winkler: The Drawings of Albrecht Dürer. 4 vols. Berlin 1936-1939.
  • Friedrich Lippmann, Joseph Meder, Friedrich Winkler (eds.): “Drawings by Albrecht Dürer in reproductions (collotype facsimile)” G. Grotesche Verlagsbuchhandlung Berlin, 1883-1929, (large folio)
    • Vol. 1: (F. Lippmann, 1883) Department I-IV (Collection Kupferstichkabinett Berlin, Collection William Mitchell, John Malcolm of Poltalloch, Frederick Locker)
    • Vol. 2: (F. Lippmann, 1888) Departments V-XXII (Collections in Bremen, Brunswick, Coburg, Weimar, Hamburg, Graz, London, Prague, Dusseldorf, Berlin, Budapest, Bamberg, Frankfurt, Munich, Dresden and Darmstadt)
    • Vol. 3: (F. Lippmann, 1894) Department XIII-XXV (Collections of the Museums in London and Paris)
    • Vol. 4: (F. Lippmann, 1896) Divisions XXVI-XLVIII (Collections in Chantilly; Paris, Windsor Castle, Oxford, Chatsworth, Warwick, London, Turin, Vienna, Prague, Erlangen, Karlsruhe and Berlin)
    • Vol. 5: (J. Meder, 1905) Department XLIX (Collection in the Albertina in Vienna)
    • Vol. 6: (F. Winkler, 1927) Department VI (Apprenticeship Years and Travels)
    • Vol. 7: (F. Winkler, 1929) Department VII (Nuremberg Years and Travels)

Monographs, exhibition catalogues and CD-ROMs

  • Daniel Hess u. Thomas Eser (eds.): Der frühe Dürer. Accompanying volume to the exhibition at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2012. ISBN 978-3-936688-59-7.
  • Peter Strieder: Dürer. 3., revised and expanded edition 2012, supervised by Anna Scherbaum. Königstein i. Ts. Verlag Langewiesche 2012. with contributions by Bruno Heimberg: On the painting technique of Albrecht Dürer; Georg Josef Dietz: On the technique of drawing, its task and use in the work of Albrecht Dürer; Joseph Harnest (†): Dürer and perspective; Anna Scherbaum: From writings by Dürer and From writings on Dürer and his work. ISBN 978-3-7845-9142-1.
  • Christine Demele: Dürers Nacktheit – Das Weimarer Selbstbildnis. Rhema Verlag, Münster 2012, ISBN 978-3-86887-008-4.
  • Franz Winzinger: Albrecht Dürer. Reinbek 1971, ISBN 3-499-50177-5.
  • Erwin Panofsky: The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer. Translated into German by Lise Lotte Möller, Munich 1977 (first English edition: 1943).
  • Giorgio Zampa and Angela Ottino Della Chiesa: L’opera Completa di Dürer. Rizzoli Editore, Milano 1968.
  • Albrecht Dürer. 1471/1971. exhibition catalogue of the German. Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. Prestel, Munich 1971, ISBN 3-7913-0004-0.
  • Friedrich Teja Bach: Structure and Appearance. Studies on Dürer’s graphic art. Technische Hochschule Aachen, modified Habil.-Schrift, Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-7861-1717-9.
  • Matthias Mende (ed.): Albrecht Dürer – ein Künstler in seiner Stadt. Tümmels, Nuremberg 2000, ISBN 3-921590-84-1.
  • Hans Möhle, Fedja Anzelewsky: Dürer und seine Zeit – Meisterzeichnungen aus dem berliner Kupferstichkabinett. Berlin 1967.
  • Mark Lehmstedt (ed.): Albrecht Dürer: Das Gesamtwerk. CD-ROM, Digital Library, No. 28. Directmedia Publishing, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89853-428-6. Also contains:
  • Fedja Anzelewsky, Albrecht Dürer: Werk und Wirkung. Stuttgart 1980 (electronic edition 1999).
  • Frank Neidhart Steigerwald: Studien zur Kunst Albrecht Dürers: Vom “rechten Maß”, menschlicher Proportion und “Vergleichungen”, die wir in uns schöpfen. Habilitationsschrift TU-Braunschweig, ca. 1990 (unprinted, typewritten copy in 3 volumes (1. text, 2. annotations, 3. illustrations) in the University Library Braunschweig)
  • Albrecht Dürer: Schriften und Briefe, edited by Ernst Ullmann and text editing by Elvira Pradel. Reclam-Verlag, Leipzig 1993.
  • Christian Schoen, Albrecht Dürer: Adam and Eve. Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-496-01244-3.
  • Thomas Schauerte, The Gate of Honour for Emperor Maximilian I. Dürer and Altdorfer in the Service of the Ruler, Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-422-06331-5.
  • Thomas Schauerte: Dürer – Das ferne Genie. Eine Biographie, Reclam, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-15-010856-7.
  • Anna Schiener: Albrecht Dürer. Genius between the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Pustet, Regensburg 2011. ISBN 978-3-7917-2357-0.
  • Reinhard F. Timken-Zinkann: A Man Called Dürer. The artist’s life, ideas, environment. Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-7861-4087-1.
  • Johann Konrad Eberlein, Albrecht Dürer, Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 2003, ISBN 3-499-50598-3.
  • Wolfgang Schmid: Dürer als Unternehmer. Art, Humanism and Economy in Nuremberg around 1500(Contributions to Regional and Cultural History 1). Porta-Alba-Verlag, Trier 2003, ISBN 3-933701-05-8.
  • Norbert Wolf: Albrecht Dürer 1471-1528. The Genius of the German Renaissance. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-8228-4919-7.
  • Albrecht Dürer, ed. Klaus Albrecht Schröder and Maria Luise Sternath, Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern 2003, ISBN 978-3-7757-1330-6.
  • Werner Körte: Albrecht Dürer. Die Apokalypse (= Der Kunstbrief 51). Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1948, again as Albrecht Dürer – The Apocalypse of John, Reclam, Stuttgart 1957.
  • Manfred Krüger: Albrecht Dürer, Verlag Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2009; ISBN 978-3-7725-2375-5.
  • Olga Kotková (ed.): Albrecht Dürer. The Feast of the Rose Garlands. Exh. Cat. National Gallery Prague, Prague 2006.
  • Friedrich Piel: Albrecht Dürer. Watercolours and Drawings. Dumont, Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-7701-1483-3.
  • Philipp Zitzlsperger: Dürers Pelz und das Recht im Bild – Kleiderkunde als Methode der Kunstgeschichte. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2008. ISBN 978-3-05-004522-1.
  • Hans Gerhard Evers: Dürer bei Memling, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich 1972.
  • Fritz Koreny: Albrecht Dürer und die Tier- und Pflanzenstudien der Renaissance. Munich 1985.
  • Elena Filippi: Umanesimo. Dürer tra Cusano e Alberti, S. Giovanni Lupatoto (VR), Arsenale Ed. 2011.
  • Jochen Sander (ed.): Dürer. Art – Artist – Context. Prestel Verlag, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-7913-5318-0.
  • Leonhard G. Richter: Dürer Code. Albrecht Dürer’s deciphered master engravings. J. H. Röll-Verlag, Dettelbach 2014, ISBN 978-3-89754-458-1.
  • Klaus-Rüdiger Mai: Dürer : das Universalgenie der Deutschen, Berlin : Propyläen, 2015, ISBN 978-3-549-07454-1.
  • Rainer Hoffmann: Im Glanze des Himmels – Putten-Motive im Werk Albrecht Dürers, Böhlau Verlag Köln, 2019, ISBN 978-3-412-50041-2.
  • Ernst Ullmann: Albrecht Dürer. Leipzig 1982.
  • Anton Springer: Albrecht Dürer, 1892
  • Franz Servaes: Albrecht Dürer, Bard-Berlin, 1905

Other treatises

  • Albert von Zahn: Die Dürer-Handschriften des Britischen Museums. In: Jahrbücher der Kunstwissenschaft (A. von Zahn, ed.), vol. 1, Leipzig 1868, pp. 1-22(online). (Commented by Moritz Thausing: Notes on the Dürer Manuscripts of the British Museum, ibid., pp. 183-184, online)
  • Fedja Anzelewsky: Dürer zwischen Symbolik und Naturwissenschaft. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller, Karl Stackmann (eds.): Lebenslehren und Weltentwürfe im Übergang vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit. Politics – Education – Natural History – Theology. Report on colloquia of the Commission for the Study of the Culture of the Late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen: philologisch-historische Klasse. Folge III, Nr. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7, pp. 267-281.
  • Thomas H.von der Dunk: ‘Dürers Denkmal für den Bauernkrieg’, in: ders, Das Deutsche Denkmal. A History in Bronze and Stone from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque,. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-412-12898-8, pp. 131-179.

Encyclopedia article

  • Alfred Woltmann: AlbrechtDürer. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Vol. 5, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, pp. 475-485.
  • Ludwig Geiger: Pirkheimer, Willibald. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Vol. 26, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1888, pp. 810-817 (side entry: Dürer)
  • Hans Jantzen:Albrecht Dürer. In: New German Biography (NDB). Vol. 4, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1959, ISBN 3-428-00185-0, pp. 164-169 (Digitalisat).
  • Dürer, Albrecht. In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 4.Auflage. Vol. 5, Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig/Vienna 1885-1892, p. 243.

Web links

Commons: Albrecht Dürer– Collection of images, videos and audio files

Wikisource: Albrecht Dürer– Sources and full texts

Passio Domini Nostri Jesu

Individual references

  1. Germanisches Nationalmuseum: Online Object Catalogue Portrait of Barbara Dürer, née Holper
  2. Manfred Vasold: Dürer, Albrecht. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin/ New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4, p. 326.
  3. Norica, das sind Nürnbergische Novellen aus alter Zeit (1.Bd. S. 111), August Hagen, Verlag: Josef Max und Comp., Breslau 1829 in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.
  4. Manfred Vasold: Dürer, Albrecht. 2005, S. 326.
  5. In more recent studies on the history of art and books, Dürer’s involvement in the first printing of the Ship of Fools is justifiably called into doubt; on this, see for example Anja Grebe: Albrecht Dürer. Artist, Work and Time. 2. Aufl. Darmstadt 2013, 32 as well as in detail Annika Rockenberger: Albrecht Dürer, Sebastian Brant und die Holzschnitte des “Narrenschiff”-Erstdrucks (Basel, 1494). A critical research objection. In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 86 (2011), 312-329.
  6. New insights into a male friendship of Albrecht Dürer, on:, 8 June 2016
  7. Man or maiden – whom did Dürer love?, on:, 24 November 2011
  8. Beate Böckem: Der Frühe Dürer und Italien. Italienerfahrungen und Mobilitätsprozesse um 1500. in: Daniel Hess/ Thomas Eser (eds.): Ausst.-Kat.: Der Frühe Dürer. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2012, pp. 52-64.
  9. Daniela Crescenzio: Italian Walks in Nuremberg – Volume I: Nuremberg, Venice of the North, 1st ed. 2011, Verlag IT-INERARIO, Unterhaching, ISBN 978-3-9813046-3-3, pp. 144-146.
  10. Travel falsification instead of evidence. Retrieved 19 January 2013 (
  11. Burkhard von Speyer (16th century), Royal Collection Trust, Great Britain.
  12. The second stay in Venice Chapter XI from Moritz Thausing, Dürer: Geschichte seines Lebens und seiner Kunst, Leipzig 1876, Heidelberg University Library.
  13. Dürer: The Resurrection(1512) in the German Digital Library.
  14. Dürer The shroud of sweat, held by two angels (1513), Deutsche Fotothek.
  15. Dürer The shroud of sweat, held by an angel (iron etching 1516), Deutsche Fotothek.
  16. Dürer: Bagpiper (1514), several prints in the German Digital Library.
  17. Albrecht Dürer’s fencing book, Cod. HS 26-232, Albertina, Graphische Sammlung Vienna. In: Heidemarie Bodemer The fencing book (PDF; 10.8 MB). Dissertation, Stuttgart 2008, pp. 161-170.
  18. Dürer: Jakob Fugger der Reiche(charcoal/chalk drawing), c. 1518 in the German Digital Library.
  19. Dürer: Jakob Fugger der Reiche(panel painting, 1520) in the German Digital Library.
  20. The Dutch Journey Chapter XV from Moritz Thausing: Dürer: Geschichte seines Lebens und seiner Kunst, Leipzig 1876, Heidelberg University Library.
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  22. Werner Dettelbacher: Albrecht Dürers Leiden. In: Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen 23, 2004, pp. 516-520; here: S. 516.
  23. Werner Dettelbacher (2004), p. 516f.
  24. Dürer’s letters, diaries and rhymes (see p. 52), ed. Moritz Thausing, Vienna 1872, MDZ digitalisat.
  25. Franz Winzinger: Albrecht Dürer. Reinbek 1971, p. 136f.
  26. E. Mummenhoff: Was Willibald Pirckheimer a slanderer? Nuremberg 1928.
  27. Werner Dettelbacher: Albrecht Dürers Leiden. In: Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen 23, 2004, pp. 516-520; here: S. 519. For a source-critical consideration of the text passage, see Franz Fuchs: Eine neue Notiz zu Dürers Krankheit und Tod, in: Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg 107, 2020, pp. 279-288, here: Note 6 (volume to be published in 2021)
  28. Werner Dettelbacher (2004), p. 517.
  29. Hans Rupprich: Albrecht Dürer. Schriftlicher Nachlaß. I, Berlin 1956, p. 167.
  30. Hanns M. Seitz: “Do der gelb fleck ist …” Dürer’s malaria, a misdiagnosis. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, Volume 122, Issue 3, October 2010, pp. 10-13.
  31. Franz Fuchs: A new note on Dürer’s illness and death. In: Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg. Vol. 107, 2020, ISSN 0083-5579, pp. 279-288 , herep . 283 (volume to be published in 2021).
  32. Albrecht Dürer Herein are comprehended four books of human proportion Nuremberg 1528, MDZ Digitalisat.
  33. Franz Fuchs: A new note on Dürer’s illness and death. In: Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg. Vol. 107, 2020, ISSN 0083-5579, pp. 279-288 , here pp. 283-285 (volume to be published in 2021).
  34. Albrecht Dürer Etliche unterricht / zu befestigung der Stett / Schlosz / und flecken, Nuremberg 1527, MDZ Digitalisat.
  35. C. J. Scriba, P. Schreiber: 5000 years of geometry. 2. Edition. Springer, Berlin – Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-22471-8, p. 273.
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  37. Karin Leonhard: On Left and Right and Symmetry in the Baroque. In: Stephan Günzel (ed.): Topologie. Zur Raumbeschreibung in den Kultur- und Medienwissenschaften. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2007, pp. 138-139.
  38. Logarithmic spiral.Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, retrieved 10 April 2021.
  39. C. J. Scriba, P. Schreiber: 5000 Jahre Geometrie, p. 283.
  40. Teutsche Academie 1675, II, Book 3, p. 276, right column – Institute of Art History of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, DFG project “”, retrieved 16 November 2012.
  41. = Hieronymus Formschneider (resp. Formschneyder).
  42. Kupferstichkabinett Berlin, inv. no. Cim. 32 (31 cm × 21.6 cm).
  43. Lutz D. Schmadel: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed.: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5. Edition. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7, p. 186 (English, 992 p., link.springer .com [ONLINE; accessed 9 September 2020] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1978 GB. Discovered 1978 Apr. 11 by E. F. Helin at Palomar.”
  44. Karl Hemmerlein on
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  46. Dürer: Concerns of the Nation, 8 March 1971.
  47. Albrecht Dürer in the Ecumenical Encyclopedia of Saints.
  48. Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft (publisher): Evangelisches Tagzeitenbuch, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 5th edition 2003, ISBN 3-525-60290-1 and ISBN 978-3-525-60290-4.
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  50. Nuremberg celebrates Dürer: The Franconian genius Süddeutsche Zeitung, 22 May 2012.