50. Century BC
The 50th century B.C. began on January 1, 5000 B.C. and ended on December 31, 4901 B.C. This corresponds to the period 6950 to 6851 before today.
- Middle Atlantic(AT2 – 5050 to 4550 BC). Warm climate period.
- The Neolithic subpluvial (7500 to 3900 BC, attenuated to 3500 BC) brought humid climate to North Africa and greened the Sahara.
- The Neolithic Subpluvial finds its first accentuation in the Older Peron Transgression (beginning at 5000 to 4900 B.C.), which raises sea level 2.5 to 4 meters above the average 20th century level.
- Transition from the Early Neolithic to the Middle Neolithic (5000 to 4500 BC) in Central Europe.
Developments, inventions and discoveries
- Around 5000 BC:
- Continued sea level rise leads to the final separation of Tasmania from the Australian continent.
- First evidence of settlement history in Southeast Asia (Thailand).
- Nomadic tribes settle in the Nile Valley.
- Irrigation field construction in Mesopotamia. Emergence of an ideographic script.
- Late Neolithic in Byblos. Evidenced by pottery, stone vessels, granaries, burial chambers and seals.
- In Mesopotamia, the wheel (wooden discs with an axle hole) appears under the Halaf culture.
- Under the Hemudu culture, rice is cultivated on a large scale for the first time in China (wet culture) – beginning of the Neolithic period (5000 to 2000 B.C.) Somewhat later, rice is also cultivated in the Ganges valley in northern India and in the rest of Southeast Asia.
- Beginning of agriculture in Japan. Cultivation of calabashes.
- The cultivation of calabashes, which are mainly used as vessels, spread from Mesoamerica along the east coast of North America.
- Agriculture spreading from the Middle East reaches the Atlantic coast of Europe. Beginning of the Neolithic on the Iberian Peninsula.
- In the Tehuacán Valley in Mexico, corn and bottle gourds(Lagenaria siceraria) are grown.
- Beginning of agricultural methods also in the Amazon basin, but only on a very limited scale.
- Onset of metallurgical processes during the Copper Age in Europe. Copper and gold artefacts.
- The origins of Proto-Indo-European are possibly to be assumed in the Samara culture.
Cultures in North Africa
- Tenerium (5200 to 2500 BC) in the Ténéré Desert with Gobero site.
Cultures in Mesopotamia and the Near East
- Samarra culture (5500 to 4800 B.C.) in northern Mesopotamia – Late phase (5000 to 4800 B.C.)
- End of the Halaf culture (5500 to 5000 B.C., also 5200 to 4500 B.C.)
- Obed period (5500 to 3500 BC) – Obed I.
- Hacılar Höyük in Turkey (7030 to 4800 BC) – Layer I
- Sialk stage (6000 to 2500 BC) in Iran – Sialk III
- Amuq (6000 to 2900 BC) in Turkey – Amuq C
- Mersin (5400 to 2900 BC) in Anatolia – Mersin 22-20
- Eridu (from 5300 to ca. 1950 BC) in Mesopotamia – Eridu 19-15
- Byblos – late Neolithic (5300 to 4500 BC)
- Tappa Gaura (5000 to 1500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia – Tappa Gaura 20
- Nineveh (from 6500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia – Nineveh 3
- Susiana (5500 to 4400 BC) in Iran – Susiana B and C
- Tepe Sabz (5200 to 4800 BC) in Iran
- Haggi Mohammed (5000 to 4500 BC) in Turkey
Cultures in South Asia
- Mehrgarh (7000 to 2600/2000 B.C.) in Baluchistan – Mehrgarh II (5500 to 4800 B.C.) and Mehrgarh III (4800 to 3500 B.C.)
- Namazgadepe (5300 to 1700 B.C.) in Turkmenistan – Namazgadepe II (to 4300 B.C.)
Cultures in East Asia
- Laoguantai Culture (6000 to 3000 B.C.), Upper Yellow River
- Chengbeixi culture (5800 to 4700 BC) in Hubei
- Dadiwan Culture (5800 to 3000 B.C.), Upper Yellow River
- The Peiligang culture (5600 to 4900 BC) in Henan disappears towards the end of the century
- Xinle culture (5500 to 4800 BC) in Liaoning
- Beixin culture (5400 to 4400 BC)
- Qingliangang culture (5400 to 4400 BC)
- Hemudu culture (5200 to 4500 B.C., more recent dating 5000 to 3300 B.C.), Zhejiang
- Tangjiagang culture (5050 to 4450 B.C.) on the middle Yangtze River
- Onset of the Baiyangcun culture (5000 to 3700 BC, is also dated younger: 3000 to 1700 BC), in Yunnan and the
- Yangshao culture (5000 to 2000 BC), in central and northern China.
- Early Jeulmun period (6000 to 3500 BC).
- Jōmon period (10000 to 300 BC) – Earliest Jōmon period – Jōmon II (8000 to 4000 BC)
Cultures in Europe
- Kazakhstan and Eastern Europe (Russia, Ukraine):
- The Bug-Dnister culture (6500 to 5000 BC) comes to an end.
- Beginning of the Khwalynsk culture (5000 to 4500 BC) and the
- Samara culture (around 5000 BC)
- The Kurgan cultures (5000 to 3000 BC) make their first appearance.
- Northeastern Europe:
- Dimple Ceramic Culture (4200 to 2000 BC) (but radiocarbon dating: 5600 to 2300 BC)
- Narva culture (5300 to 1750 BC)
- Neman culture (7000 to 3000 BC).
- Southeastern Europe:
- Sesklo culture (6850 to 4400 BC) in northern Greece
- Vinča culture (5400 to 4500 BC) (or Danubian civilization) in Serbia, western Romania, southern Hungary, and eastern Bosnia.
- Danilo-Hvar culture (5500 to 4000 BC) in Croatia.
- Beginning of the Karanovo cultures (6200 to 4000 BC) in southern Bulgaria – Karanovo IV and V, Late Neolithic and Early Copper Age.
- Central Europe:
- Linear Pottery Culture (5600 to 4100 BC) in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine
- Note-head pottery (5200 to 4700 BC) in Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary
- Ertebølle culture (5100 to 4100 BC) in Denmark and northern Germany
- Swifterbant culture (5000 to 3400 B.C.) in the Netherlands, Belgium and Lower Saxony (in the Netherlands it dates from 5700 to 4100 B.C.)
- first appearance of the Hinkelstein culture (5000 to 4800 B.C.) in southwest Germany – HST I and HST II
- In Bavaria, beginning of the Southeast Bavarian Middle Neolithic with the Bavarian Stichbandkeramik (c. 5000 to 4615 BC) – KG 1 to KG 5a
- Southern Europe:
- In Malta, the Għar Dalam phase (5000 to 4500 BC) sets in.
Cultures in America
- North and Central America:
- Archaic Period.
- Coxcatlán phase (5000-3400 BC) in Tehuacán (Mexico)
- South America:
- Chinchorro culture (7020 to 1500 BC) in northern Chile and southern Peru
- Middle Preceramic (7000 to 4000 BC) in northern Chile. Alto Barranco and Alto Aguada sub-stages along the Pacific coast and Rinconada in the hinterland.
- Las Vegas culture in Ecuador (8000 to 4600 BC)
- Smith, B. D.: Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica. In: PNAS. Vol. 102, No. 27, 2005, pp. 9438-9445 .
- Eibl, F.: Die Bayerische Gruppe der Stichbandkeramik und die Gruppe Oberlauterbach – zum Stand der Forschung. In: Fines Transire. Vol. 20, 2011, pp. 79-100.