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50. Century BC

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52. Jh. B.C. |
51. Jh. B.C. |
50.Century B.C. |
49. Jh. B.C. |
48. Jh. B.C. |

The 50th century B.C. began on January 1, 5000 B.C. and ended on December 31, 4901 B.C. This corresponds to the period 6950 to 6851 before today.

Age, Epoch

  • Middle Atlantic(AT2 – 5050 to 4550 BC). Warm climate period.
  • The Neolithic subpluvial (7500 to 3900 BC, attenuated to 3500 BC) brought humid climate to North Africa and greened the Sahara.
  • The Neolithic Subpluvial finds its first accentuation in the Older Peron Transgression (beginning at 5000 to 4900 B.C.), which raises sea level 2.5 to 4 meters above the average 20th century level.
  • Transition from the Early Neolithic to the Middle Neolithic (5000 to 4500 BC) in Central Europe.

Developments, inventions and discoveries

Flower and fruit of the bottle gourd

  • Around 5000 BC:
    • Continued sea level rise leads to the final separation of Tasmania from the Australian continent.
    • First evidence of settlement history in Southeast Asia (Thailand).
    • Nomadic tribes settle in the Nile Valley.
    • Irrigation field construction in Mesopotamia. Emergence of an ideographic script.
    • Late Neolithic in Byblos. Evidenced by pottery, stone vessels, granaries, burial chambers and seals.
    • In Mesopotamia, the wheel (wooden discs with an axle hole) appears under the Halaf culture.
    • Under the Hemudu culture, rice is cultivated on a large scale for the first time in China (wet culture) – beginning of the Neolithic period (5000 to 2000 B.C.) Somewhat later, rice is also cultivated in the Ganges valley in northern India and in the rest of Southeast Asia.
    • Beginning of agriculture in Japan. Cultivation of calabashes.
    • The cultivation of calabashes, which are mainly used as vessels, spread from Mesoamerica along the east coast of North America.
    • Agriculture spreading from the Middle East reaches the Atlantic coast of Europe. Beginning of the Neolithic on the Iberian Peninsula.
    • In the Tehuacán Valley in Mexico, corn and bottle gourds(Lagenaria siceraria) are grown.[1]
    • Beginning of agricultural methods also in the Amazon basin, but only on a very limited scale.
    • Onset of metallurgical processes during the Copper Age in Europe. Copper and gold artefacts.
    • The origins of Proto-Indo-European are possibly to be assumed in the Samara culture.

Cultures

Cultures in North Africa

  • Tenerium (5200 to 2500 BC) in the Ténéré Desert with Gobero site.

Cultures in Mesopotamia and the Near East

  • Samarra culture (5500 to 4800 B.C.) in northern Mesopotamia – Late phase (5000 to 4800 B.C.)
  • End of the Halaf culture (5500 to 5000 B.C., also 5200 to 4500 B.C.)
  • Obed period (5500 to 3500 BC) – Obed I.
  • Hacılar Höyük in Turkey (7030 to 4800 BC) – Layer I
  • Sialk stage (6000 to 2500 BC) in Iran – Sialk III
  • Amuq (6000 to 2900 BC) in Turkey – Amuq C
  • Mersin (5400 to 2900 BC) in Anatolia – Mersin 22-20
  • Eridu (from 5300 to ca. 1950 BC) in Mesopotamia – Eridu 19-15
  • Byblos – late Neolithic (5300 to 4500 BC)
  • Tappa Gaura (5000 to 1500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia – Tappa Gaura 20
  • Nineveh (from 6500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia – Nineveh 3
  • Susiana (5500 to 4400 BC) in Iran – Susiana B and C
  • Tepe Sabz (5200 to 4800 BC) in Iran
  • Haggi Mohammed (5000 to 4500 BC) in Turkey

Terracotta vessel from Hacılar, c. 5000 BC.

Cultures in South Asia

  • Mehrgarh (7000 to 2600/2000 B.C.) in Baluchistan – Mehrgarh II (5500 to 4800 B.C.) and Mehrgarh III (4800 to 3500 B.C.)
  • Namazgadepe (5300 to 1700 B.C.) in Turkmenistan – Namazgadepe II (to 4300 B.C.)

Cultures in East Asia

  • China:
    • Laoguantai Culture (6000 to 3000 B.C.), Upper Yellow River
    • Chengbeixi culture (5800 to 4700 BC) in Hubei
    • Dadiwan Culture (5800 to 3000 B.C.), Upper Yellow River
    • The Peiligang culture (5600 to 4900 BC) in Henan disappears towards the end of the century
    • Xinle culture (5500 to 4800 BC) in Liaoning
    • Beixin culture (5400 to 4400 BC)
    • Qingliangang culture (5400 to 4400 BC)
    • Hemudu culture (5200 to 4500 B.C., more recent dating 5000 to 3300 B.C.), Zhejiang
    • Tangjiagang culture (5050 to 4450 B.C.) on the middle Yangtze River
    • Onset of the Baiyangcun culture (5000 to 3700 BC, is also dated younger: 3000 to 1700 BC), in Yunnan and the
    • Yangshao culture (5000 to 2000 BC), in central and northern China.
  • Korea:
    • Early Jeulmun period (6000 to 3500 BC).
  • Japan:
    • Jōmon period (10000 to 300 BC) – Earliest Jōmon period – Jōmon II (8000 to 4000 BC)

Cultures in Europe

  • Kazakhstan and Eastern Europe (Russia, Ukraine):
    • The Bug-Dnister culture (6500 to 5000 BC) comes to an end.
    • Beginning of the Khwalynsk culture (5000 to 4500 BC) and the
    • Samara culture (around 5000 BC)
    • The Kurgan cultures (5000 to 3000 BC) make their first appearance.
  • Northeastern Europe:
    • Dimple Ceramic Culture (4200 to 2000 BC) (but radiocarbon dating: 5600 to 2300 BC)
    • Narva culture (5300 to 1750 BC)
    • Neman culture (7000 to 3000 BC).
  • Southeastern Europe:
    • Sesklo culture (6850 to 4400 BC) in northern Greece
    • Vinča culture (5400 to 4500 BC) (or Danubian civilization) in Serbia, western Romania, southern Hungary, and eastern Bosnia.
    • Danilo-Hvar culture (5500 to 4000 BC) in Croatia.
    • Beginning of the Karanovo cultures (6200 to 4000 BC) in southern Bulgaria – Karanovo IV and V, Late Neolithic and Early Copper Age.

Bandkeramic harvest knife, 5000 BC.

  • Central Europe:
    • Linear Pottery Culture (5600 to 4100 BC) in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine
    • Note-head pottery (5200 to 4700 BC) in Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary
    • Ertebølle culture (5100 to 4100 BC) in Denmark and northern Germany
    • Swifterbant culture (5000 to 3400 B.C.) in the Netherlands, Belgium and Lower Saxony (in the Netherlands it dates from 5700 to 4100 B.C.)
    • first appearance of the Hinkelstein culture (5000 to 4800 B.C.) in southwest Germany – HST I and HST II
    • In Bavaria, beginning of the Southeast Bavarian Middle Neolithic with the Bavarian Stichbandkeramik (c. 5000 to 4615 BC) – KG 1 to KG 5a[2]
  • Southern Europe:
    • In Malta, the Għar Dalam phase (5000 to 4500 BC) sets in.

Cultures in America

  • North and Central America:
    • Archaic Period.
    • Coxcatlán phase (5000-3400 BC) in Tehuacán (Mexico)
  • South America:
    • Chinchorro culture (7020 to 1500 BC) in northern Chile and southern Peru
    • Middle Preceramic (7000 to 4000 BC) in northern Chile. Alto Barranco and Alto Aguada sub-stages along the Pacific coast and Rinconada in the hinterland.
    • Las Vegas culture in Ecuador (8000 to 4600 BC)

Individual references

  1. Smith, B. D.: Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica. In: PNAS. Vol. 102, No. 27, 2005, pp. 9438-9445 .
  2. Eibl, F.: Die Bayerische Gruppe der Stichbandkeramik und die Gruppe Oberlauterbach – zum Stand der Forschung. In: Fines Transire. Vol. 20, 2011, pp. 79-100.